1. Collective Ownership
    a type of public ownership of property in a socalist economy that is between state (government) ownership and private ownership. in theory the property is owned jointly by a group of people and is operated in their common interst rather then for the profit of any single individual. in china, rual landis collectivly owned by the entire village an dis constructed out to individual famillies or used for other purposes such as building a collected owned factory
  2. Beijing Consensus
    a term sometiems used to describe the model of economic development being follwed by the PRC that includes a commitment to innovation and expeirmentation; stable growth based on sustainable and equitable development; global intergration with national self-determination; and strong govvernment oversight of market reform. often contrsed to the Washington Consensus
  3. Gini Index
    a statistical measure of the inequality of income distribution in a country it rangines from 0 (perfect equality) to 1(erfect inequality). China's Gini index has be gong up during most of the reform era.
  4. neo-liberalism
    an economic philosohy, and the oplicies that go along with it that empasizes free market capitalism, a limited role for the state in managing the economy and unrestricted international trade
  5. Path dependence
    Term used by political scientists and economist to indicate that decisions by pollicy-makers are often shaped or even limited by past decisions that were made under very differnt circumstances
  6. planned economy
    or centrally planned economy, or command economy; an economic system taht is controlled by the central government, which makes all important decisions on plans and commands, rather than the free market, to regulate the economy. planned economies were key features of communist party states such as soviet union. the economic reforms introducedin China sesne early 1980s have greatly reduced, but by no means eliminated the role of lanning
  7. rent-seeking
    the introduction of govrnment regulations that, in various ways create conditions where officals can gain economic advantages (rents) for themselfs or their organization that would not occur in an open market sitiuation
  8. segmented deregulation
    an approach to economic reform that implements the new policies over time in differnt sectors of the economy or differnt arts of the country. the implematio of special econimc zones in china is an example of segmented deregulation
  9. Small and medium enterprises
    enterprises of a certain scale in the PRC as determined by some combination of number of employees, capital, or the value of assests and sales volume. Since 1997, all SMEs in China have been privatized, leaving only large enterprises owned by the state. SMEs are one of th emost dynamic sectors of the Chinese economy in terms of growht and innovation
  10. Special Economic Zones
    or exporting processing zones areas of the country that are allowed to implement incentives designed to attract foreign investment by firms that will produce goods for export. such incentives may include tax holidays, low rents, guarenteed supply of materials and utilites, and inexpensive labor. the benefits to the host country include job creation and the transfer of techonolgy and management skills. China's first SEZs were established in early 1980s, follwed by a rapid expansion of similar "open cities" and "develpment zones" in many parts of the country, but especally along the coast
  11. State Asset Supervision and Adminstration Commission
    the PRC governmetn organiation taht oversees enterprises that remain under state control. SASAC covers five sectors of the economy-telecommunications, petroleum and refining, metalurgy (steel and other metals) electricity and military industry
  12. trading state
    a country whos internationa commerce dramtically increases its national power. China is a contemporary example of a higly successful trading state
  13. Washington Consensus
    policies promoted primarly by the U.S. the world bank and the international monetary fund(IMF) that prescrived a neo-liveral apprach to economic development, including reducing the role of the state in the economy and maximizing that of the free market, eliminated government subsidites, privatizing govnerment industries and pubic utilites and removing bariers to free trade and foregin investments
  14. Big Bang
    an approach to economic development, especally in countries going through a post-communist transition from a planned economy to a market economy, that carreis out widespread fundamental reforms simultaneously or in rapid succession
  15. Country
    the level of administration in the RC below the provience (and autonomous region and centrally administered city) and above the town
  16. Central advisary commission
    established by Deng Xiaoping in 1982 as a CCP organization with little power, whos purpose was to ease elderly senior leaders into retirement by removing them from important positions,yet allowing them to retain some public visibility and prestige in an advisory capacity. it was abolished in 1992
  17. Deng Xiaoping Theory
    the offical name given by the Chinese Communist Party to the idelogy of Deng Xiaoping. Deng Xiaoping theory was added to the constitution of the CCP in 1997 as a formal part of the party's guiding idelogy. it can be said to consist of two main parts; Building Socialism with Chinese Charateristics, which invloves the reform of the econom ,including introducing elements of capitalism and opening the country economically and other ways to the outside world; and the Four Cardinal Principles, which lay out the political framework of party leadership and the idelogical conditions for reform and opening up
  18. Democracy Wall
    a name given to 650-foot streach of wall near Tiananmen Sqiare om Beokomg. where in late 1978 early 1979 there was an eruption of political posters by intellectuals critizing Mao's mistakes and the neo-Maoist "whateverist: faction, as well as calling for democratization. Democracy wall was shut down and several leaders of the movement arrested after it had served Deng Xiaoping's purpose of islolating his leftist political opponents in the party leadership
  19. for big rights
    the right to speak out freely, air views fully, hold great debates, and write big-character posters; included in the 1975 constitution of the PRC-the so-called cultural revolution constitution because of its many radical features. These rights were reomoved when the constitution was througly rewritten in 1982 after the Maoist era had ended
  20. Four Cardinal Principles
    the idelogical guidelines for economic reform spelled out by Deng Xiaoping in a speach in March 1979. in that speach he said, inpursuing modernization it was necessary for China to 1 uphold the socialist road 2 uphold the dictatorship of the proletariat 3 uphoad the leadership of the communist party and 4 uphold marxism-leninism and Mao Zedong Though. the CCP still emphasizes the four cardinal principles as part of its guiding idelogy
  21. Falun Gong
    literally, "Dharma Wheel Pratice" a spiritual sect that combines elements of buddhism and Daosim along with breathing exercies and meditation founded in 1992 by Li Hongzhi, a worker and musician turned spiritual leader. it gained tens of millions of follwers form all walks of life both inside China and abroad. the Chinese government begain cracking down on the group in 1999, which led to a silent protest by 10000 Falun Gong follers outside Zhongnanhai, the CCP leadership compoundin Beijing. the governmentthen labled the group as a dangerous religious cult and banned it. this ban remains in effect and the Falun Gong movment in China has been driven underground
  22. Gang of Four
    a labl first appied by Chairman Mao Zedong in May 1975 tho his wife, Jiang Qing, and her radical Shanghai colleagues, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Hongwen as part of a warning to them to sto their secrative factional maneuverings within the party leadership; "pratice Marxism-Leninism and not revisionism; unite and dont split; be open and aboveboard, and dont intrigue and conspire. dont function as a gang of four, dont d it anymore, why do you keep doing it?" the label was then ublically applied to them as part of a campaign of denunciation after their arrest in Octoer 1976. the "gang of four" was puton trial in 1980 and sentenced to long prision terms for their political crimes
  23. Gradualism
    an approach to ecnomic development thatimplements form in a cautious step-by-step manner. China's economic reform are often charaterized as being gradually in contrast to the "big bang" aproach of rapid and multifaceted change undertaken by the form Soviet Union and many Eastern European countries after the fall of the region's communist party states. but there have been "big bang" aspects to China's reform, such as the wave of privatization of state-owned and collective enterprises in teh 1990s.
  24. iron rice bowl
    the cradle to grave benefits and lifetime employment that were garanteed to workers in state owned enterprises and to somewhat lesser extent to peasants in people's communes during teh Maoist era. one major objective of the market reform begunin early 1980s was th smash the iron rice bowl, which was considered tohave been a costly drag on enterprise and commune finances as well as a disincentive to labor productivity and effenciency
  25. Joint ventures
    comopanies that are partilyowned by priavate foregin investers and partly owned by the Chinese govenrment or a chinese firm. when the PRC first opened to the world economy in 1980s all foregin investments had to be in the form of a joint venture the share of forein ownership was limited to lest than 50%, and the Chinese partner was always a state owned enterprise or other government entity. now there are no such limits, although some sectors of the economy (especially the financial sector) remain restricted to foreign involvement
  26. National People's Congress (NPC)
    the national parliament or legislature of the people republic of China. it consists of moer than 3000 deputies, elected eveyr five years and meets annually for about tow weeks. according to the PRC constitution. the NPC has significant powers such as electing the president and declaring war. while more active in recent years in shaping legslitation and serving as a forum for discussion of important issues,it still operates within the framework of party leadership and is not a trulyindependedn branch of government
  27. pragmatist facton
    or pratice faction; a grou of CCP leaders who early in the post-mao era supported a return to a less ideological apprach to policy-making under th eslogan "pratice is the sole critirion for testing trute" thery were led by veterne and cadre Chen Yun and were strong advocates of restoring ower to Deng Xiaoping, who had been purged by Mao in April 1976. they were opposed by the neoMaoist "Whateverist" faction
  28. people's communes
    the form of rual production and living that was established in 1958 during the grate leap foward
  29. township and village enterprises
    rual industries that are technically owned collectivly by the township or village and are not part of the state planned ecnomy. TVE expanded rapidly in 1980s and were important part of rising living standards in the countryside and of China's spectacular ecnomic growth more generally beginning in the mid 1990s, most TVEs were privatized
  30. primary stage of socalism
    or inintal stage of socialism; decarled by teh CCP in the early 1980s to be wehre the PRC was in terms of its level of ideological and economic development this provided justification for using aspects of capitalism and the market economy to promote China's economic development. it was said that one of Mao's biggest mistakes was to skip or compress this primary stage of socialism by eliminating all elementsof capitalism (like the profit motive) and moving too fast form teh mid-1950s in implementing China's socalist transformation
  31. whateverist faction
    a group of CCP leaders who in the early post-Mao era in 1977 pledged to suport whatever policy decisions were made by chairman mao and to unswervingly folow whatever instructions were given by chairman mao. the grouop which have been called neo-maoist because of their desire to continue some aspects of Maosit policies and idelogy and preserve the chairman's reputation incuded hua guofeng, mao's succeser as part chairman, mao's personal bodyguard wang dongxing, and the mayor of beijing wu de. they were politically opposed by the pragmatist faction. the waterverist faction was gradually pushed aside after Deng Xiaophing regured to power in 1978
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