1. what is a lichen?
    symbiotic association of a fungus and one or more algae
  2. what is mutualism?
    the relations between two different organisms that both benefit from each other
  3. what is commensalism?
    relation between two different organisms, one receives benefits from the other without damaging it
  4. what is parasitism?
    the relation between two organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it
  5. whats involved in lichen reproduction?
    Algae reproduces entirely by cell division.

    Fungus forms “fruiting bodies” and releases spores from apothecia or perithecia.

    Only rarely does a germinating spore capture an algal cell to form a lichen

    Most lichens reproduce vegetatively: soredia, isidia and thallus fragments
  6. whats involved in lichen taxonomy?
    Algal partners will also occur alone in nature

    Nearly all the fungal partners are restricted to their lichen occurrence

    Lichen taxonomy is based on the fungus present
  7. what values do lichen have?
    Pioneer organisms of hostile environments

    Soil formation and soil protection

    Air pollution indicators


    Food source, especially in the polar regions

    Extracted pigments used as dyes
  8. lichen substrate is influenced by?
    chemical composition

    moisture-holding capacity

  9. what is saxicolous?
    means growing on rock
  10. what is corticolous?
    means growing on bark
  11. what is terricolous?
    means growing on soil
  12. what is lichen classification based on?
    its based on appearance rather than based on fungal partner
  13. what is crustose?
    means crusty
  14. what is foliose?
    means leafy
  15. what is fruticose?
    means stalked
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    crustose lichens (crusty)
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    foliose lichens (leafy)
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    fruticose lichens (stalked)
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    beard lichen
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    british soilder lichen
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    disk lichen
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    goblet lichen
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    lung lichen
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    map lichen
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    pagoda lichen
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    powder horn lichen
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    reindeer lichen
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    sheild lichen
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    smooth rock tripe lichen
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