NLD Final

  1. What are the categories of stimuli that contribute to
    setting events?
    Physical, Chemical, Organismic, and Social Stimuli
  2. Physical Stimuli
    Artifacts: Spoon, fork, cup, cars, trees, rain.
  3. Chemical Stimuli
    Environmental gases: Fragrances, baking cookies, solutions such as soap and lotion.
  4. Organismic Stimuli
    Biological and physiological stimulation: Hunger pangs, muscle sensation, pressure sensation, sitting on bottom.
  5. Social Stimuli
    Others' presence, actions, or interactions; appearance and speech or actiosn of mothers, fathers, caregivers, brothers, sisters, pets.
  6. In what three ways can a functional stimulus influence behaviors?
    Reinforcing, descriminitave, or eliciting event
  7. 1st: Monologues
    instances of private speech in which children simply talk to themselves
  8. 2nd: Affect Expressive Monologues
    Pre-schoolers might talk to themselves to express their feelings
  9. 3rd; Collective Monologue
    Somewhat more socialized; although children take turns talking, utterances are independant.
  10. 4th: Associated Monologue
    Characterized by preschoolers increased socialization; individual monologue relates to some central topic.
  11. Final level: Socialized speech
    Increasingly, acknoweldge their partners utterances and begin to show a greater concern for the actual transmission of information.
  12. Symbolic Play
    The child allows one thing ( a block ) to represent another ( a car ).
  13. 1st: Solitary Play
    The child plays independently even if another child is present.
  14. 2nd; Parallel play
    Children playing near one another, perhaps using similar items in the same way, but not really playing with each other.
  15. 3rd: Cooperative play
    Children interact with each other in organizing and executing the structure of an activity.
  16. Dore Conversational Acts
    Serve various functions in discourse; These functions are evolved beyond those served by PSAs. Dore proposed that a conversational act is composed of grammatical form (the utterance), propositional content (its meaning), and an illocutionary function (the intended effect).

    • Requests
    • Responses to requests
    • Descriptions
    • Statements
    • Acknowledgements
    • Organization devices
    • Performatives
    • Miscellaneous
  17. Linguistic Perspective Taking
    Involves our ability to adjust our language based on being able to gauge the language level of the listener.
  18. Cognitive Perspective Taking
    Requires making judgements about the listener's level of understanding of the topic at hand.
  19. Perceptual Perspective Taking
    Involves the ability to infer what the listener is capable of perceiving (feeling, seeing, hearing, etc) in the circumstances.
  20. Anaphoric Reference
    The role pronouns play in referring back to words that occurred just prior to them.
  21. Deixis
    • Words "point to" their referent according to the speakers perspective.
    • That/This
    • These/Those
  22. Grammatical ellipsis
    Linguistic device speakers use to eliminate information where it can be assumed that listeners are aware of it. May be available in the linguistic and non linguistic context.
  23. Style Shifting
    Speakers modify how something is said base don the status of their listeners.
  24. Topic Maintenance
    The relatedness of an utterance to the preceding utterance; staying on topic.
  25. Genre
    styles of classifications of discourse that occur in different circumstances
  26. Narratives
    A minimum of two independent clauses produced in succession relating to a single event.

    • Recounts
    • Eventcast
    • Accounts
    • Stories
  27. Contextualized language/Decontextualized language
    Context "here and now" vs. conversations about people or events not in the immediate context.

    • paradigmatic mode
    • narrative mode
  28. Fast Mapping
    A hypothetical process in which children apparently associate a word and its refernet after the initial exposure. "first impressions"
  29. Extended Mapping
    The more prolonged process of modifying word meanings with additional experiences following their initial fast mapping.
  30. Dimensional Words
    Refer to words that are adjective pairs used to indicate the various dimensions of objects; big/little, high/low...
  31. Which pair of Dimensional Words is learned earliest and why?
    Dimensions that are more commonly (unmarked) represented are experienced more frequently and, hence, tend to be mastered earlier than specific deminsions (marked).
  32. Color Words: Blue Green Yellow and Red
    Basic colors conquered before more specific: Girls will tend to surpass boys in mastery.
  33. Spatial Words
    • Early forms: in, inside, on, under
    • Later forms: Next to, in front, behind, beside
  34. Kinship Words
    Terms we use to indicate the various relationships among family members.
  35. Temporal Words
    • Order(Sequence)- before-- after
    • Duration: Since--- until
    • Simultaneity-- while - at the same time
  36. Word Relations
    • Semantic relations and selection restriction are two ways preschoolers' utterance length increases.
    • Agent + Action + Object
    • Agent + Action + Locative
    • Agent + Object + Locative
    • Agent + Action + Object + Locative
  37. Brown's A First Language:
    • Longitudinal Study of Adam, Eve, Sarah
    • Pro: study of langauge development
    • Con: Can Three, or two, children provide representative picture for all children
  38. What were the three criteria applied in selecting the morphemes for Brown's study?
    • Obligatory Contexts: not optional
    • High Frequency of Occurrence
    • Speed of Acquisition: gradual development
  39. What was the criteria for mastery?
    It was decided that mastery of form was evidence in the first of three samples in which it occurred at a level of 90% correct.
  40. Brown's Stages of Development
    Five stages
    • I. individual words
    • II. modulations of meaning (gramm Morphemes emerge)
    • III. major elements of simple sentences: imparatives
    • IV. embed the elements of one sentence w/another
    • V. combining the content of two sentences into one
  41. Why is MLU a better index of Language Development than chronological age?
    • MLR: words: 6
    • MLU: morphemes: 9
  42. What is an allomorph?
    All variations of a form
  43. 14 Grammatical Morphemes

    • Present Progressive Inflection
    • ING
  44. 14 Grammatical Morphemes

    Preposition In
  45. 14 Grammatical Morphemes

    Prepostition On
  46. 14 Grammatical Morphemes

    Regular Plural Inflection
  47. 14 Grammatical Morphemes

    Past Irregular: I ate cookie.
  48. 14 Grammatical Morphemes

    Possessive Inflection: mommy's shoe
  49. 14 Grammatical Morphemes

    Uncontractible Copula: Here it is! They were nice.
  50. 14 Grammatical Morphemes

    Articles: A, The
  51. 14 Grammatical Morphemes

    Regular past tense: Walked
  52. 14 Grammatical Morphemes

    • Regular third person singular
    • She bakes cookies
  53. 14 Grammatical Morphemes

    • Irregular third person singular
    • He has; She does
  54. 14 Grammatical Morphemes

    Uncontractible Auxillary: Is she reading? You were reading?
  55. 14 Grammatical Morphemes

    • Contractible Copula
    • Tommy's tall, They are all tall?
  56. 14 Grammatical Morphemes

    Contractible Auxiliary: She's reading. They are reading.
  57. How were the sequence and rates of mastery similar or different across the subjects?
    • Sequence: Similar
    • Rate: Dissimilar
  58. Which three variables did Brown examine to determine their role in mastery?
    Semantic Complexity, Grammatical Complexity, Frequency of Occurrence
  59. Semantic Complexity
    Measures the complexity of a linguistic structure by gauging the number ofsemantic relationships that must be discriminated to use it correctly.
  60. Grammatical complexity
    The number of transformational rules related to the production or comprehension of a grammatical structure.
  61. Frequency of Occurrence
    The relative number of occurrences (transformations) of a structure in a language sample.
  62. Contrast "rule governed behavior" versus "contingency shaped behavior."
    • Rule Governed behavior: are children really learnng rules or can their learning be described by rules?
    • Contingency-shaped behavior: Skinner: Trial and Error Reinforcement
  63. Hierarchical Syntactic Relationships
    The developmental preocess of combining two shorter language constructions into a longer construction.
  64. Hierarchical Syntactic Relationships
    • Expansion from within utterance.
    • Recurrence: want more milk
  65. Word:
    • Cookie
    • Big Cookie: phrase 2 related words
    • Big Boy Eat: clause: Sub + Pred
    • The boy ate a cookie: Grammatically complete
  66. What role do pronouns play?
    Replacing nouns or noun phrases
  67. Constituent Equivalence
    Pronouns becoming equivalent to the words they replace.
  68. Anaphoric Reference
    Pronoun refers to a person or thing that has been mentioned previously.
  69. Cataphoric Reference
    • Pronouns replace nouns or noun phrases and refer to their occurrence later in the context.
    • When he was finished, Dad took a nap.
  70. Earliest forms of pronouns
    Latest forms of pronouns
    • This that
    • I You He
    • Me Him Her
    • His theirs
    • My mine
    • Myself himself herself
  71. Comparative
    Comparison between two items: Bigger
  72. Superlative
    • Comparison is among more than two items: Biggest
    • Emerges First
  73. Action Verbs
    Words that refer to activity that is observable.
  74. Process Verbs
    Words that refer to unobservable activity or gradual changes: Rusting, aging, thinking, hearing.
  75. State Verbs
    Words that link a subject to a stable or unchanging condition or attribute: Is, Wanting, Stayed.
  76. Grammatical Verbs
    Verbs that play a grammatical role in sequencing stuctures: Copula, Auxiliary ( is are was were)
  77. Lexical Verbs
    Verbs that express a specific activity; Classified according to what structures may follow them. Run, sit, write.
  78. Transitive Verbs
    Lexical verbs that are capable of carrying a direct object affected by the action of the verb: Hit the ball. Heard violins.
  79. Intransitive verbs
    Lexical verbs that do not carry direct objects: She is smiling. Laughing.
  80. Copula Verb: Linking Verb
    • "to be" verb; ( am, is, are, was, were): Grammatical link between subject and its complement.
    • (semantic state verbs)
  81. Auxiliary Verb: Helping Verb
    Convey number and tense: Am sitting, Is running, was eating.
  82. Modal Auxiliary Verbs
    • Express mood:
    • Modal Mood Expressed
    • Can Capability
    • Could Possibility
    • Should Obligation
    • Will Promise
    • Would Willingness
    • May Possibility
    • May Permission
    • Might Possibility
    • Must Necessity
  83. Development in Verb Phrases
    • Stage I: (eat, put, make, get) Lexical; Transitive
    • Stage II: (ing)
    • Stage II: Modal Auxiliaries (can will ); Be Auxiliary verb sat- sitted
    • Stage IV: Modal Auxiliary; may might must
    • Stage V: Mastered past tense, contrd copula 5 yrs old
  84. What are the three basic types of questions?
    yes-no; wh-questions, and tag questions
  85. Negatives
    Earliest form: No! Not! Allgone!
  86. Pre-sentence Negation
    Negation precedes the full sentence
  87. Prepredicate Negation
    Negative forms precede the verb; Daddy no read
  88. Complex sentences:
    What is the purpose of a subordinate clause?
    Suplements/clarifies the main clause.
  89. Compound Sentence
    • Two basic sentences linked together by a coordinating conjunction: But and or.
    • 1st: And
  90. Comprehension of WH- Questions
    Preschoolers first comprehend wh-questions that correspond to the questions they ask. What where who
  91. Comprehension of Active and Passive
    Simple Active Declaritive: Noun Verb Noun Sequence
  92. Two factors that influence the interpretationd of active and passive sentences are?
    • Reversibility: Nouns being reversed
    • Plausibility: likelihood of resulting relationship

    +reversibility vs -reversibility
  93. Sentences that are reversible and plausible are the most difficult to comprehend; the other types -reversible/-plausible are unlikely or impossible
    • Noun-Verb-Noun: Misinterpretations for passive
    • This causes children to apply a plausible event strategy:
  94. Caregiver Models
    • MLU: decreases: speak slower; more pauses
    • Imitations decrease
    • Expansions decrease
    • Extensions Increase
  95. Turnabouts
    Behaviors that maintain the momentum and integrity of a conversation. yes-no & tag questions
  96. Which relationships are express by the later developing wh- questions?
    Semantic Relationships
  97. What does the comprehension of passives by 5-year-olds suggest about their production of passive construction?
    Reversible passives are produced, then instumental non reversible passives as they begin to understand the passive form.
  98. Mass Nouns
    Count Nouns
    • Mass: grains of sand, strands of hair
    • Count: Rocks, cars, trees
  99. Reflexive Pronouns
    Myself, yourself, himself, herself, themselves
  100. Irregular Past Tense & Plurals
    • Regular: Consistent: /s//ed/
    • Irregular forms appear ealy, then regaular inflections are learned, the irregular are then relearned in case by case manner.
  101. Growth of Vocabulary
    Vertical Development
    Horizontal Development
    • Horizontal: associating additional features with a word: mama; mother of puppy
    • Vertical: multiple meanings of words: Blocks: block the door, around the block.
  102. Changing Organization of Vocab
    Thematic-Taxonomic Shift
    • Young: Thematic: associating words based on their relationship to a theme or context
    • EX: wagon: sidewalk, dollies, playhouse
    • Older: Taxonomic: Associating words based on hierarchical categories.
    • Ex: Wagon, car, truck, bus
  103. Syntagmatic Paradigmatic Shift
    Shifting from syntactic to semantic
  104. Semantic Networks
    • Divergent: 1 word prompts many words
    • Convergent: many words prompt 1 word
  105. Metalinguistic Abilities
    Word Awareness
    Word Order Awareness
    • Ambiguity: Figurative and Funny Language
    • Ambiguity: They are baking potatoes.
    • Figurative Language: He's an ox!
    • Simile, methaphor, idiom, proverb
    • Metaphoric Transparency: similarity between figurative and literal referent
  106. Language in Adulthood
    Semantics: Vocab Growth
    • College Grad: 22k words
    • Age 65: 45k words
    • Vertical growth: Meaning
    • Horizontal Growth: Associations
  107. Bilingualism
    Process of Acquiring: Simultaneous or Successive Acquisition
    The ability to speak two languages fluently.

    Multilingualism: More than 2

    • Simultaneous Acquisition: Learning two languages at same time prior to age 3.
    • Successive Acquisition: Learning a primary language prior to age 3, then learning a second langage later.
  108. What is the core difference between "speaking a dialect" and "speaking bilingually?"
    • Variations of same language:
    • Regional: northern southern
    • Social: social status
  109. Style Shifting
    Code Switching
    • Style Shifting: Switch between two dialects
    • Code Switching: Bilingual speakers switch between linguistic codes of two or more languages
Card Set
NLD Final
Final study notes