Geology Final Exam

  1. The science of _____ literally means "study of Earth."
  2. The age of Earth is approximately ______
    4.5 billion years old
  3. True or False:
    Earth consists of four major spheres: hydrosphere, atmosphere, solid Earth, and ecosphere.
  4. An understanding of Earth is essential for....
    • a. minimizing the effects of natural hazards.
    • b. dealing with the human impact on the environment
    • c. the location and recovery of basic resources.
    • d. all of the above
  5. The outer crust of Earth is known as the ______
  6. Which one of the following statements concerning mierals is not true?
    • a. solid
    • b. naturally occuring
    • c. organic
    • d. deinite chemical structure
  7. The nucleus of an atom contains _____
    protons and neutrons
  8. Some of the properties of minerals would include ____
    • a. streak
    • b. hardness
    • c. magnetism
    • d. all of the above
  9. Atoms of the same element possess the same number of _____.
  10. A "native" element such as copper would be classified as a ____.
    nonsilicate mineral
  11. Igneous rocks form from _____ within the earth.
  12. Rock outcrops on earth's surface consist of _____ percent of sedimentary rocks.
  13. An example of a chemical sedimentary rock would be _____
  14. Two of the most important metamorphic agents are _____
    heat and pressure
  15. When magma reaches the earth's surface, it is known as ____
  16. The most important chemical weathering agent is ______
  17. Which of the following processes contribute(s) to the breakdown of rock materials?
    • a. weathering
    • b. erosion
    • c. mass wasting
    • d. all of these
  18. Soils often contain variations and vertical differences observed as general zones or layers called ______
    • a. vertisols
    • b. loams
    • c. horizons
    • d. residuals
  19. _____ is the interface in the Earth system
  20. The slowest movement of soil and regolith downhill, often characterized by tilting fences is _____
  21. The lowest point to which a stream can erode is ______
    base level
  22. The largest reservoir of fresh water that is available to humans is _____
  23. Karst topography can include a serious geologic hazard called a _____
  24. Which of the following is not a problem associated with groundwater?
    not enough runoff
  25. A name commonly used as synonym for the Ice Age is ____
    Pleistocene epoch
  26. A(n) ____ cross-valley profile is typical of canyons and valleys eroded and deepened by alpine or valley glaciers.
  27. Desert pavement is the result of ____
  28. During the most recent ice age, glaciers covered about ____ percent of Eareth's land area.
  29. True or False:
    The Basin and Range region of the western United States is an excellent example of a mountains desert landscape.
  30. In the early part of the 20th century, ______ argued forcefully for continental drift.
    Alfred Wegener
  31. Pull-apart rift zones are generally associated with a _____ plate boundary.
  32. Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earth's lithospheric plates?
    export of heat from deep in the mantle to the top of the asthenosphere
  33. All of the following are evidence supportingthe theory of plate tectonics except for _______
    changes in the moon's orbit due to shifting plates
  34. Which of the following is an important fundamental assumption underlying hte plate tectonic theory?
    Earth's diameter has been essentially constant over time
  35. Major earthquakes are often followed by somewhat smaller events known as ____
  36. Overall, this type of seismic wave is most destructive.
    surface wave
  37. Earthquake zones are closely correlated with _____
    plate boundaries
  38. The oceanic crust is ___ in composition
  39. The position on Earth's surface directly above the earthquake source is called the ____
  40. ____ is a major dissolved volatile constituent in both magma and volcanic gases.
  41. The most violent volcanic activity is associated with _____
    composite cones
  42. Kilauea is an example of a ______
    shield volcano
  43. Most of the active volcanoes of Earth are located in a belt known as the ______
    Ring of Fire
  44. True or False:
    Ash and lapilli are different sized pyroclastic particles.
  45. Faults are ___ in rocks along which appreciable displacement has taken place.
  46. The processes that collectively produce a mountain belt are called ______
  47. A large strike-slip fault that cuts through the lithosphere is a ___ fault.
  48. Terranes are accreted crustal blocks that collide with continental margins. At one time the terranes may have been ____.
  49. Fault-block mountains are caused by uplifted normal faults. An example of this type of mountain building is _____.
    Grand Tetons
  50. Catastophism _______
    was a philosophy that was first expounded by the early Greeks
  51. Consider the names of the eras in the geologic time scale. What is meant by "zoic"?
    life; living things
  52. The ____ is the idea or concept that ancient life forms succeeded each other in a definite, evolutionary pattern and that the contained assemblage of fossils can determine geologic ages of strata?
    principle of fossil succession
  53. Which of the following is an essential characteristic of an index fossil?
    The organism only lived for a short period of geologic time
  54. What is the age of the earth accepted by most scientists today?
    4.5 billion years
  55. A worm would stand a poor chance of being fossilized because ______
    worms have no hard parts
  56. Which of the following gases was NOT part of Earth's original atmosphere?
  57. Which era of geologic time spans about 88% of Earth's history?
  58. Mammals became the dominant land animals during the ____ era.
  59. The major source of free oxygen in the atmosphere is from _____
    green plants
  60. Each continent contains large "core areas" of Precambrian rocks referred to as ____
  61. Which era is sometimes called the "age of dinosaurs?"
  62. It is thought that submarine canyons on the continental slope have been generated by ____
    turbidity currents
  63. Sediments derived primarily from the products of weathering on the continents are called _____.
    terrigenous sediment
  64. An echo sounder operatesby measuring the time required for a ______.
    sound pulse travels from a ship to the seafloor and back
  65. The oceans cover approximately ____ % of Earth's surface.
  66. The ____ Ocean is largest.
  67. "Black Smokers" are associated with ______.
    • a. mineral-rick waters
    • b. hot water
    • c. oceanic ridges
    • d. all of these
  68. The total amount of solid material dissolved in water is known as ______
  69. Salinity in the ocean is highest in regions where _____ is high and ____ is low.
    evaporation; precipitation
  70. Most marine animals live nearthe surface of the ocean because of ____, which supports photosynthesis by marine algae that form the basis of the food chain.
  71. Organisms, such as algae and bacteria, that drift with ocean currents are know as ______
  72. In the food chain, each feeding stage is called a ____ level
  73. True or False:
    Productivity in the oceans is highest in tropical reasons
  74. Which of the following is correct regarding a wave in the open ocean?
    water particles move in an almost circular path.
  75. A sandbar that completely crosses a bay, sealing it off from the open ocean is a ____
    • a. tombolo
    • b. coastal barrier
    • c. sea stack
    • d. none of these
  76. The energy that drives surface ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream comes from _____
    prevailing winds
  77. Becuase the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the _____ of theie path of Motion in the Northern Hemisphere.
  78. Large estuaries are more common on a(n) ____ coastline.
  79. True or False:
    Although the Sun influences the tides, its effect is considerably less than the effect of the moon.
  80. The troposphere is the boundary between ____.
    the tropopause and stratosphere
  81. Ozone is concentrated in the ____
  82. Practically all clouds and storms occur in this layer of the atmosphere
  83. The storage of heat in the lower layerof hte atmosphere produced by certain heat absorbing gases is called the _____
    greenhouse effect
  84. Earth receives energy from the Sun in this way______
  85. The 2 most important heat absorbing gases in the loweratmosphere are ____
    water vapor and carbon dioxide
  86. The cloud form that is best described as sheets or layers that cover much or all of the sky is termed _____.
  87. High clouds that form delicate veil-like patches extended wispy fibers are termed ____
  88. This cloud may develop and "anvil head".
  89. The highest relative humidity is likely to occur ______
    around sunrise
  90. True or False:
    The capacity of air to "hold" water vapor is temperature dependent.
  91. True or False:
    When air is cooled to its dew point, the relative humidity is 80%.
  92. Closely spaced isobars often indicate on a weather map indicated ____.
    high winds
  93. Upper air winds ____.
    are generally faster than surface winds.
  94. Low air pressure systems are usually associated with _____
    diverging winds
  95. If stormy weather were approaching, the pressure tendency would probably be _____
  96. A Santa Ana (Chinook or Foehn) wind is a ____.
    very dry, warm wind flowing down a mountain slope
  97. Fast moving currents of air found near the tope troposphere are called _____.
    jet streams
  98. On a weather map ____ fronts are shown by a line with triangular points on one side.
  99. A wind shift from south or southwest ot northwest is commonly associate with the passage of a ____ front.
  100. Which one of the following statements is NOT true of tornadoes?
    Usually occur along the warm front of a mid-latitude cyclone
  101. Typhoon is another name for a ____
  102. True or False:
    Warms fronts generally have sleeper slopes than cold fronts
  103. True or False:
    Thunder is produced by lightning.
  104. Which of the following is considered to be a boundary between two different air masses?
    both warm and cold fronts
  105. The first modern astronomer to propose a Sun-centered universe was ______
    Nicolaus Copernicus
  106. This scientist determined the nature of the forces that kept the planets in their orbits.
    Sir Isaac Newton
  107. 3 laws of planetary motion were discovered by _____
    Johannes Kepler
  108. The belt of constellations through which all the planets move is called the _____
  109. The apparent westward drift of the planets as compared to the background stars is called _____
    retrograde motion
  110. True or False:
    The ancient Greeks proposed an Earth-centered view of the universe.
  111. True or False:
    The planets maintain circular orbits around the Sun.
  112. T or F:
    Galileo discovered that the Sun has "blemishes," which we call sunspots.
  113. T or F:
    Galileo discovered Jupiter's four largest moons.
  114. T or F:
    The moons rotation is very similar in time it's revolution around earth
  115. Pluto is now classified as a ____ in our solar system.
    dwarf planet
  116. The ____ explains how our solar system probably formed from a giant cloud of gases and dispersed solid particles.
    nebular hypothesis
  117. As the solar system was forming, ______ came closest to undergoing nuclear fusion and becoming a second sun.
  118. ______ has the great, dark spot on its surface.
  119. How did the lunar maria most likely originate?
    huge impact basins that were nearly filled with basaltic lava flows
  120. ____ are found both on Mars and Earth.
    Erosional feartures related to flowing water
  121. Which one of the following is NOT true of Jupiter?
    a rotational speed slower than Mercury
  122. ____ has atmospheric pressures at its surface that are roughly comparable to those at Earth's surface.
    Saturn's moon Titan
  123. ___ has a hot, turbulent atmosphere dominated by carbon dioxide.
  124. ____ is the principal gas in the Venusian atmosphere and also a minor component of the atmospheres of Earth and mars.
    Carbon Dioxide
  125. Which one of the terrestrial planets has a surface landscape similar to that of the older areas of the Moon?
  126. The belt (orbit) of the asteriods is located between ____
    Jupiter and Mars
  127. The first person to use a telescope for astronomical observations was ___
  128. The layer of the Sun that radiates most of the light that reaches Earth is called the _____
  129. The outermost layer of the Sun is called the _____.
  130. The source of the Sun's energy is _____
    nuclear fusion
  131. The most conspicuous features on the surface of the Sun are dark areas called _____.
  132. Streams of protons and electrons emitted from the Sun produce ____
    the solar wind
  133. During periods of high solar activity, huge cloudlike structures that appear as great arches extending from the Sun are often produced. These solar features are called _____.
  134. T or F:
    Blue stars are cooler than red stars
  135. T or F:
    In the case of light, when a source is moving away, its light appears redder than it actually is.
  136. T or F:
    The sun is considered an "average star"
  137. Our galaxy is called the ____
    milky way galaxy
  138. Which main-sequence stars are the most massive?
  139. Which main sequence stars are the least massive?
  140. Possibly the most cataclysmic event to occur in nature is ____
    hydrogen burning
  141. The most dense stars known to exist are ____
    black holes
  142. These stars are produced during a supernova event
    black hole
  143. A star in which light cannot escape because of the immense gravitational pull at its surface is called a ______
    black hole
  144. The Sun belongs to this class of stars.
    main-sequence star
  145. The point in stellar evolution when a star has used up all its fuel and is radiating away its remaining thermal energy as light is the ___ stage.
    white dwarf
  146. Most stars are in this stage of evolution.
    main-sequence star
  147. The final stage for a star which is as massive as the Sun is a ____
    black dwarf
  148. When a main-sequence star has exhausted the fuel in the inner region, it becomes a ____
    red giant
  149. Hubble's law states that galaxies are receding from us at a speed that is proportional to their ____
  150. The discovery that the universe appears to be expanding led to a widely accepted theory called _____
    the Big Bang
  151. Based on the observed red shifts in the spectral lines of distant galaxies, astronomers conclude that _____
    The universe is expanding.
Card Set
Geology Final Exam