APUSH Ch. 27-28

  1. Charles Evans Hughes
    • -governor of New York
    • -gained fame by investigating the malpractices of gas and insurance companies
  2. Governor Hiram W. Johnson
    -led California; took to regulate railroads and trusts
  3. Robert M. La Follette
    • -Progressive from Wisconsin
    • -embodiment of Progressive movement
  4. 17th Amendment
    -1913, provided direct election of Senators
  5. http://mrzsneighborhood.com/pdfs/Ch%2026-28%20SG%20Answers.pdf
  6. Political Progressive
    -Initiative: voters could directly propose legislation

    -Referendum: People could vote on laws that affected them

    -Recall: People can remove bad officials, particularly bribed ones, from office

    -Also desired for the “Australian ballot”, (secret ballot) that could counteract effects of party bosses
  7. Dr. Harvey W. Wiley
    • -was chief chemist of Department of Agriculture
    • -was part of “Poison Squad”
    • -exposed frauds that sold potent patent medicines by experimenting on himself
  8. Cold Strike
    • -1902
    • -strike broke out in anthracite coalmines of Pennsylvania
    • -140,000 workers demanded 20% pay increase and reduction of workday to 9 hours
    • -Owners refused to negotiate and city began running out of coal
    • -TR threatened to seize mines and operate them with federal troops
    • -workers got 10% pay increase and 9-hour workday
  9. Square Deal
    • -conservation
    • -control by big businesses
    • -consummation
  10. Great White Fleet
    • -TR’s pride as navy
    • -sent around the world to impress people
    • -does not impress people meant to impress (Britain, Germany, Japan(
    • -not as modern
    • -Congress doesn’t like it, but has to fund it anyway
  11. Gentlemen’s Agreement
    • -Japan stop issuing visas to America
    • -Japan: happy secretly, publicly outraged
  12. 18th Amendment
    • -1919
    • -prohibited sale and drinking of alcohol
  13. Frances E. Williard
    -Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
  14. Lochner vs. New York
    -invalidated NY law establishing a ten-hour day for bakers
  15. Muller vs. Oregon
    • -1908
    • -Attorney Louis D. Brandeis persuades Supreme Court to accept constitutionality of laws that protected women workers
  16. Russo-Japanese peace talks
    • -US involved because we’re good friends with both countries -neither country gets what they want; they start disliking us
    • -maybe led to Cold War/Pearl Harbor attack?
    • -TR got Nobel Peace Prize for this, even though he loved war
  17. Russo-Japanese War
    • Russia
    • -Only part is European, most is Asian
    • -still has a feudal system (with a czar)
    • -no rifles, sometimes went to battle with a pike

    • Japan
    • -small in terms of area, but not people -very modern
    • -much better weapons
    • -sneak attack on Russia – crushing victory

    • Men and Yen
    • -Japan started running out on resources
  18. League of Nations
    • -Wilson:
    • -a hall of representatives from every country, talk everything out, never have war again!
    • -naïve idea
    • -peace through reason

    • -TR: strong country representatives, collectively to do stuff like during the Boxer Rebellion, no more war!
    • -peace through overwhelming strength
  19. Wilson
    • -cold, intelligent, born and raised in Virginia
    • -arrogant, didn’t like talking to anyone below him (which was majority of people), very bright
    • -most famous after WWI
  20. Triangle Shirtwaist Company
    • -located in NYC
    • -experienced a fire in 1911 which killed 146 workers, mostly young women
    • -led to a major movement by Progressives to fight against child labor
  21. “New Freedom”
    • -Propsed by Wilson
    • - continued regulation of big business
    • -bank reform
    • -lowering tariff (intended to bring in Bryan supporters, unify party)
  22. Concern about the disappearnce of the national frontier...
    • -led to formation of Boy Scouts of America
    • -led to formation of Sierra club
    • -naturalist John Muir was a member
  23. Jack London
    • -wrote "Call of the Wild"
    • -successful because of concern about the disappearance of the national frontier
  24. Forest Reserve Act
    • -1891
    • -authorized president to set aside land to be protected as national parks
    • -some 46 million acres of forest protected as a result
  25. Desert Land Act
    • -1877
    • -first conservation act
    • -provided little help
  26. William Howard Taft
    • -known reformer
    • -Secretary of War, wants to be Supreme Court Justice
    • -Ran against William Jennings Bryan, who lost in history fashion
  27. Third Term
    • -TR wants to run again
    • -made himself impossible to run again
    • -said when elected in 1904 that he would “adhere to the 2-term tradition”
    • -Finds Taft to replace him
  28. “Roosevelt Panic of 1907”
    • -haters gotta hate – haters’ attempt to blame TR for something and show that he’s a bad president
    • -they fail
    • -they don’t really think TR’s ruining the country; he’s just bad for business
    • -over very quickly
    • TR: asks JP Morgan for $2 million to fix panic
    • -mutual dislike
    • -in return, TR allows Morgan to form U.S. Steel (good for navy)
  29. Upton Sinclair
    • -wrote “The Jungle”
    • -meant to expose plight of workers in meat businesses
    • -misrepresent: stuff didn’t all happen at same place, in short time
    • -grosses out Americans
  30. Meat Inspection Act
    • -1906
    • -government can inspect factories
  31. Pure Food and Drug Act
    • -1906
    • -ingredients must be listed
  32. Hepburn Act
    • -1906
    • -restricted the free passes of railroads
  33. Elkins Act
    • -1903
    • -fined railroads that gave rebates and the shippers that accepted them
  34. Department of Commerce and Labor
    • -formed in 1903-included Bureau of Corporations
    • -allowed to probe businesses engaged in interstate commerce in “trust-busting”
  35. Payne-Aldrich Bill
    • -Taft and House had passed a moderately reductive bill
    • -Nelson W. Aldrich, leader of Senate, tacked on lots of upward revisions
    • -betrayed Taft's promise
    • -incurred wrath of party
    • -outraged many people
    • -Old Republicans: high tariff
    • -Progressive Republicans: low tariff
    • -Taft: foolishly called it "best bill Republican party has ever passed"
  36. Issues that split Republican Party
    • 1. the tariff
    • 2. conservation of lands
  37. Taft as a Trustbuster
    • -brought 90 suits against trusts
    • -1911: ordered dissolution of Standard Oil Company
    • -tried to break U.S. Steel, which TR had previously approved of
  38. Dollar Diplomacy
    • -urged by Taft for Americans to invest abroad
    • -called for Wall Street bankers to sluice their surplus dollars into forgein areas of strategic conern to the U.S., especially Far East and in regions critical to the security of the Panama Canal
    • -gave US economic control over these areas
  39. Eugene V. Debs
    • -ran in 1908 against Taft and Bryan
    • -part of Socialist party
    • -surprisingly garnered 420,793 votes
  40. Federal Reserve Act (2)
    • -1913
    • -caused by Aldrich-Vreeland Act
  41. Aldrich-Vreeland Act
    • -1908
    • -authorized national banks to issue emergency currency backed by various kinds of collateral
  42. Hetchy Hetch Valley
    • -1913: San Francisco received permission to build dam there
    • -valley part of Yosemite National Park
    • -caused much controversy
    • -John Muir called valley "temple of nature"
    • -showed how TR battle two fronts:
    • -governmental interests
    • -romantic preservation
  43. Election of 1912
    • -Wilson (Democrat, winner)
    • -TR (Progressive Republican "Bull Moose")
    • -Taft (Republican)
    • -Debs (Socialist)
  44. Election of 1908
    • -Taft (Republican, winner)
    • -Bryan (Democrat)
    • -Debs (Socialist)
  45. National Progressive Republican League
    • -1911
    • -La Follette was leader
    • -TR elected as nominee after being rejected by Republicans
  46. Split of Republican Party
    • -1910
    • -split between Old Guard (Taft) and Progressives (TR)
    • -as a result, Democrats emerged with landslide in House
    • -Socialist Victor L. Berger was even elected from Milwaukee
  47. Ballinger-Pinchot Quarrel
    • -1910
    • -involvement hurt Taft
    • -Secretary of Interior Richard Ballinger opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska to corporate developemtn
    • -criticized by Forestry chief Gifford Pinchot, who was then fired by Taft
    • -Old Republicans: favored using lands for business
    • -Progressive Republicans: favored conservation of lands
  48. Bureau of Mines
    -established by Taft to control mineral resources
Card Set
APUSH Ch. 27-28
APUSH study cards