Hard drive, memory chips, wires, transistors, motherboard, power source
Also called programs; is a series of instructions for the computer.
If there is an error in software it ___ be changed, unlike _____instructions.
Ppl who develop software.
Is the result of rewriting an algorithm using a specific programming language.
Means to start a computer; means to restart a computer.
Booting and Rebooting
"pulling yourself up by your bootstraps"
A high-capacity, persistent peripheral storage device also called a disk or hard drive
Hard disk (hard drive)
Two or more computer systems that can communicate with each other over some communications media.
Can be wired or wireless
Local Area Network...
Wide Area Network...
Aglobal network of Wide Area Networks..
WAN (a bunch of LANS)
90% of communication on the Internet is _____.
Sending and receiving occur at separate times.
Sending and receiving occur at the SAME time
One sender, many receivers..
One sender, many selected receivers..
One sender, one receiver..
____(your browser) requests a service
____(Web server) provides a service
The ____ can handle many clients in a short period of time.
The address of a computer connected to the Internet (destination address)
Is a series of 4 numbers separated by dots; each of the 4 numbers takes up one byte of memory so an ___ is a 4 byte address
Is a related group of networked computers.
Is a symbolic name for a 4 byte IP address, and thus a particular computer on the Internet
**Domain names are specifict-general**
A domain name reveals a ____.
The purpose of a top level domain name is to indicate:
Each packet is _____
How is a message sent over a LAN?
Is a true broadcast medium
WWW is a subset of the internet.
___ tells which page and where it is on the server.
Which 3 search engines are considered best by UC Berkeley?
**Processors -Intel means processors AND NOT Intel**
Is a software that implements FTP or File Transfer Protocol. (publishing)
Is the simplest way to exchange files on the Internet.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
Are commands to the browser telling it how to display the content of the web page
Is a collection of computer programs that helps us find info on the world wide web
A search engine has 2 basic parts:
2. Query Processor
Is also calle a "bot" or a "spider"; software that "crawls" around the web looking through web pages, using what it finds to build its search engine's index
We interact with the ____. It takes the tokens we enter (called a ___) and looks for them in the index, returning a list of URLs called hits. Do not search the world wide web when you submit a query.
Search engines rank the Web pages they find either through popularity or subject based ranking
The 3 logical operators
and, or, not
The act of discovering why a system does not work properly
Each circuit is more commonly called a ___ or ___
bit/ binary digit
Base of a hexadecimal, binary, decimal
5 properties of Algorithms
1. Inputs specified
2. Outputs Specified
A named quantity in a programming language
Looping through a series of statements to repeat them
In searching, a sequence of characters; in programming, a data type for a sequence of characters
A programming statement, usually identified by IF, that optionally executes statements depending on the outcome of a Boolean test
Tells the computer what names to use and begins with lowercase variables, followed by the first of variables separated by commas, terminated with a semicolon; case sensitive, begin with a letter, followed optionally by letters, digits, underscore; undefined when declared.
Assigns a value on the right of "=" to a variable on the left of "="; "=" is read GETS or "is assigned"; Never read "as equal to"
Has an arithmetic expression;
1. contains one or more arithmetic operators
2. evaluates to a number
3. follows order of operations
Contains one or more logical operators
Contains one or more relational operators (==, !=, <,>); evaluates to true or false
Black (0,0) White (1, F)
Occurs when the computer does arithmetic and the answer will not fit where it needs to go.
Means to reduce the number of bits in the file, thereby making it take up less space
_____ is used to do file compression.
A lossy compression technique
MP3 ompression, sound
Another lossy compression technique
A lossless compression technique
A lossy technique
MPEG compression (video)
Names of the three major credit bureaus
"Notations like smilies" used to flag humor or surprise or sadness are called____
"nasty email exchanges in which a few people fight, but carbon copy a group of others are called
Civilized behavior in any of the social settings on the internet
Pirated music files are often shared on ____ file sharing networks, where each computer behaves as a server as well as a client
Malicious code that 0can reproduce itself, delete files, change files, fill up your memory, fill up your disk, capture your keystrokes and send them to another computer a ____ or a _____
From the time a work is created, unless the creation is for pay, the creator automatically owns the _____ on that work in the United States and in most nations of the world
Info that is free to use in any form by anyone
Software for which the actual program instructions are publicly available is known as _____ software. This allows a large number of people to enhance and improve it, the Mozilla open source software lead to the Firefox browser
Software which is free to download initially and copy for handing out to you r friends is called ___. After a trial period if you like this software you are to pay for it. If you don't like it you are to take it off of your computer. It is an honor system.
Is a concept that allows for the limited use of copyrighted material for educational purposes, review or criticism, parody
Malicious software is written by hackers who want to compromise a computer or the info stored on it. Send spam email asking for private info. The email is disguised to look like from a bank or business...
2 threats to our privacy
Give 2 ex of countries that do not have governmental laws in place to enforce OECD principles
US and China
Give 2 examples of countries that do have governmental laws in place to enforce OECD principles
Australia and Canada
The approach the US uses to deal with the way businesses handle private data
A company can't move data from an EU country to US until US meets the OECD principles... so they had to agree and came up with ____which is a US company that follows the rules of the agreement can receive info from the EU
Are most often used to store and perform calculations on numeric data
Is organized like a table, with columns and rows. The intersection of a row and a column is a cell.
Each ____ is identified by a letter, and each ___ by a number. This allows each ___ in the grid to be identified by a letter-number combo like B2
Three things might go into a spreadsheet cell:
Formula or Function
For the content of a cell you can specify
Format and Data type
Means that this cell contains a function rather than data
Means the function being performed is addition
Is used for inserting common Excel functions
An organized collection of related info, used primarily to maintain and look up that info
The most common type of database; data is organized into tables that have rows and columns. collection of one or more tables
a relational database ___can be empty
Two tables with the same rows and columns, but in a different order are the ___
Every ___ of a database table must be unique in some way
The ____ for which all rows for the data base table are unique is the ____ of the table
Attribute data i s___
The value of a ___ can not be subdivided into several smaller parts; the date attribute is a classic exception
The collection of all table definitions for a database
Each table definition includes:
1. table name
2. Fields with data types
3. Primary key indicated
Is made up of all the physical tables; NO REDUNDANCY
Made up of all of the logical tables
Is created as the result of a ___
Logical table; query
Is an operation on one or more database tables that pulls info from the database
For complex queries, go beyond drag and drop with ____
Structured Query Language (SQL)
show the relationships between the physical tables in the physical database
Entity relationship diagrams (ER diagrams)
Steps to create each query...
1. Select the table or tables with the needed data (choose the tables)
2. Select the fields you wish to see (choose the needed fields)