Comp Science Final

  1. The color for each pixel is stored in a computer's _____ or ______.
    Video memory VRAM or Main memory RAM.
  2. RAM is made up of billions of tiny circuits called _____.
  3. ____ is called 1 byte.
    8 bits.
  4. ** 2^n where n is the number of bits**
  5. True color is where the color of each pixel is determined by _____ or _____.
    24 bits=3 bytes
  6. The 3 bytes of true color are?
    RGB ----> Red, Green, Blue
  7. How many colors are possible with true color?
    2^24 or 16 million
  8. Two components on the motherboard?
    • 1. Processor (CPU)
    • 2. Main memory chips (RAM)
  9. On a personal computer ____ exists as several chips on a single card.
  10. RAM is short for ______.
    Random Access Memory
  11. Is much larger thann VRAM since it is general purpose is STORAGE
  12. Capacity is expressed in terms of ______.
  13. What is the standard storage for RAM?
    8-10 GB
  14. Is temporary storage?
  15. Purpose of RAM:
    • A temporary holding bin for
    • - the programs you are currently running
    • - the data for those programs.
  16. RAM is _____.
  17. Another name for computer equipment. If you assemble wires and transistors in such a way that they perform a series of instructions, that function is said to be ____ and cannot be changed.
  18. Visible hardware:
    Keyboard, printer, processor box, scanner, mouse, monitor
  19. Hidden hardware:
    Hard drive, memory chips, wires, transistors, motherboard, power source
  20. Also called programs; is a series of instructions for the computer.
  21. If there is an error in software it ___ be changed, unlike _____instructions.
    CAN; hardwired
  22. Ppl who develop software.
  23. Is the result of rewriting an algorithm using a specific programming language.
  24. Means to start a computer; means to restart a computer.
    • Booting and Rebooting
    • "pulling yourself up by your bootstraps"
  25. A high-capacity, persistent peripheral storage device also called a disk or hard drive
    Hard disk (hard drive)
  26. Two or more computer systems that can communicate with each other over some communications media.
    Computer network
  27. Can be wired or wireless
    Communications media
  28. Local Area Network...
    Wide Area Network...
    Aglobal network of Wide Area Networks..
    • LAN
    • WAN (a bunch of LANS)
    • The Internet
  29. 90% of communication on the Internet is _____.
  30. Sending and receiving occur at separate times.
  31. Sending and receiving occur at the SAME time
  32. One sender, many receivers..
    One sender, many selected receivers..
    One sender, one receiver..
    • Broadcast
    • Multicast
    • Point-to-point
  33. ____(your browser) requests a service
    ____(Web server) provides a service
    • Client
    • Server
  34. The ____ can handle many clients in a short period of time.
  35. The address of a computer connected to the Internet (destination address)
    IP address
  36. Is a series of 4 numbers separated by dots; each of the 4 numbers takes up one byte of memory so an ___ is a 4 byte address
    IP address
  37. Is a related group of networked computers.
  38. Is a symbolic name for a 4 byte IP address, and thus a particular computer on the Internet
    Domain name
  39. **Domain names are specifict-general**
  40. A domain name reveals a ____.
  41. The purpose of a top level domain name is to indicate:
    • 1. Function
    • 2. Location
  42. Each packet is _____
  43. How is a message sent over a LAN?
    Ethernet Protocol
  44. Is a true broadcast medium
  45. WWW is a subset of the internet.
  46. ___ tells which page and where it is on the server.
    Path name.
  47. Which 3 search engines are considered best by UC Berkeley?
    • 1. Google
    • 2. Yahoo
    • 3. Exalead
  48. **Processors -Intel means processors AND NOT Intel**
  49. Is a software that implements FTP or File Transfer Protocol. (publishing)
  50. Is the simplest way to exchange files on the Internet.
    FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
  51. Filezilla--SANDBOX
  52. Are commands to the browser telling it how to display the content of the web page
  53. Is a collection of computer programs that helps us find info on the world wide web
    Search Engines
  54. A search engine has 2 basic parts:
    • 1. Crawler
    • 2. Query Processor
  55. Is also calle a "bot" or a "spider"; software that "crawls" around the web looking through web pages, using what it finds to build its search engine's index
  56. Crawler--->index
  57. We interact with the ____. It takes the tokens we enter (called a ___) and looks for them in the index, returning a list of URLs called hits. Do not search the world wide web when you submit a query.
    Query Processor.
  58. Search engines rank the Web pages they find either through popularity or subject based ranking
    Page Rank
  59. The 3 logical operators
    and, or, not
  60. The act of discovering why a system does not work properly
  61. Each circuit is more commonly called a ___ or ___
    bit/ binary digit
  62. Base of a hexadecimal, binary, decimal
    • hexa-16
    • binary-2
    • decimal-10
  63. 5 properties of Algorithms
    • 1. Inputs specified
    • 2. Outputs Specified
    • 3. Definiteness
    • 4. Effectiveness
    • 5. Finiteness
  64. A named quantity in a programming language
  65. Looping through a series of statements to repeat them
  66. In searching, a sequence of characters; in programming, a data type for a sequence of characters
  67. A programming statement, usually identified by IF, that optionally executes statements depending on the outcome of a Boolean test
    Conditional statement
  68. Tells the computer what names to use and begins with lowercase variables, followed by the first of variables separated by commas, terminated with a semicolon; case sensitive, begin with a letter, followed optionally by letters, digits, underscore; undefined when declared.
  69. Assigns a value on the right of "=" to a variable on the left of "="; "=" is read GETS or "is assigned"; Never read "as equal to"
    Assignment statements
  70. Has an arithmetic expression;
    1. contains one or more arithmetic operators
    2. evaluates to a number
    3. follows order of operations
    assignment statement
  71. Contains one or more logical operators
    logical expression
  72. Contains one or more relational operators (==, !=, <,>); evaluates to true or false
    relational expression
  73. +,-, x
    arithmetic operators
  74. Black (0,0) White (1, F)
  75. Occurs when the computer does arithmetic and the answer will not fit where it needs to go.
  76. Means to reduce the number of bits in the file, thereby making it take up less space
    file compression
  77. _____ is used to do file compression.
  78. A lossy compression technique
    MP3 ompression, sound
  79. Another lossy compression technique
    JPEG compression
  80. A lossless compression technique
    GIF compression
  81. A lossy technique
    MPEG compression (video)
  82. Names of the three major credit bureaus
    • Equifax
    • Trans Union
    • Experian
  83. "Notations like smilies" used to flag humor or surprise or sadness are called____
  84. "nasty email exchanges in which a few people fight, but carbon copy a group of others are called
    flame wars
  85. Civilized behavior in any of the social settings on the internet
  86. Pirated music files are often shared on ____ file sharing networks, where each computer behaves as a server as well as a client
  87. Malicious code that 0can reproduce itself, delete files, change files, fill up your memory, fill up your disk, capture your keystrokes and send them to another computer a ____ or a _____
    virus, worm
  88. From the time a work is created, unless the creation is for pay, the creator automatically owns the _____ on that work in the United States and in most nations of the world
  89. Info that is free to use in any form by anyone
    Public domain
  90. Software for which the actual program instructions are publicly available is known as _____ software. This allows a large number of people to enhance and improve it, the Mozilla open source software lead to the Firefox browser
    Open source
  91. Software which is free to download initially and copy for handing out to you r friends is called ___. After a trial period if you like this software you are to pay for it. If you don't like it you are to take it off of your computer. It is an honor system.
  92. Is a concept that allows for the limited use of copyrighted material for educational purposes, review or criticism, parody
    fair use
  93. Malicious software is written by hackers who want to compromise a computer or the info stored on it. Send spam email asking for private info. The email is disguised to look like from a bank or business...
  94. 2 threats to our privacy
    • 1. government
    • 2. business
  95. Give 2 ex of countries that do not have governmental laws in place to enforce OECD principles
    US and China
  96. Give 2 examples of countries that do have governmental laws in place to enforce OECD principles
    Australia and Canada
  97. The approach the US uses to deal with the way businesses handle private data
  98. A company can't move data from an EU country to US until US meets the OECD principles... so they had to agree and came up with ____which is a US company that follows the rules of the agreement can receive info from the EU
    Safe Harbor
  99. Are most often used to store and perform calculations on numeric data
  100. Is organized like a table, with columns and rows. The intersection of a row and a column is a cell.
  101. Each ____ is identified by a letter, and each ___ by a number. This allows each ___ in the grid to be identified by a letter-number combo like B2
    • Column
    • Row
    • Cell
  102. Three things might go into a spreadsheet cell:
    • String
    • Number
    • Formula or Function
  103. For the content of a cell you can specify
    Format and Data type
  104. Means that this cell contains a function rather than data
  105. Means the function being performed is addition
  106. Is used for inserting common Excel functions
    Autosum button
  107. An organized collection of related info, used primarily to maintain and look up that info
  108. The most common type of database; data is organized into tables that have rows and columns. collection of one or more tables
    Relational database
  109. Rows=tuples
  110. columns=fields
  111. a relational database ___can be empty
  112. Two tables with the same rows and columns, but in a different order are the ___
    Same table
  113. Every ___ of a database table must be unique in some way
  114. The ____ for which all rows for the data base table are unique is the ____ of the table
    • Field
    • Primary key
  115. Attribute data i s___
    atomic (indivisible)
  116. The value of a ___ can not be subdivided into several smaller parts; the date attribute is a classic exception
  117. The collection of all table definitions for a database
    Database Schema/scheme
  118. Each table definition includes:
    • 1. table name
    • 2. Fields with data types
    • 3. Primary key indicated
  119. Is made up of all the physical tables; NO REDUNDANCY
    Physical database
  120. Made up of all of the logical tables
    Logical database
  121. Is created as the result of a ___
    Logical table; query
  122. Is an operation on one or more database tables that pulls info from the database
  123. For complex queries, go beyond drag and drop with ____
    Structured Query Language (SQL)
  124. show the relationships between the physical tables in the physical database
    Entity relationship diagrams (ER diagrams)
  125. Steps to create each query...
    • 1. Select the table or tables with the needed data (choose the tables)
    • 2. Select the fields you wish to see (choose the needed fields)
    • 3. Set the criteria for which rows you want
    • 4. Sort as prescribed
Card Set
Comp Science Final