micro basics

  1. Chlamydia
    • Half the size of rickettsia
    • Can not be see with light microscope
  2. Mycoplasma
    • Smallest of bacteria
    • No cell wall
  3. Cyanobacteria
    • (“Blue-green algae”)
    • share structural andbiochemical properties of bacteria
    • Have light trapping
  4. Fungi
    • Once considered plants, but plants do not have chitin
    • Do not employ photosynthesis
    • use performed organic matter from environment: very resilient, important decomposer's of organic material
    • Eukaryotes that are divided into two major branches – they exhibit diamorphic growth (adaptability)
    • :yeasts – unicellular
    • :molds – long chains of cells
  5. Unicellular Algae
    • Plant-like
    • use photosynthesis
    • differ structurally from mosses, ferns, and seed plants
    • two types
    • :diatoms(eukaryotic) – important food source in ocean (whales filter water to eat these
    • :dinoflagellates – photosynthetic eukaryotescomposed of amoebae in hard shells
  6. Viruses
    • no observable activity except replication
    • only function inside living cells
    • observed with electron microscope only
    • consist basically of nucleic acid and protein
    • nucleic acid packaged inside protein: released when virus penetrates cell
    • takes over host cell’s structures and enzymes to replicate (cell often destroyed)
    • as more cells involved, tissue disintegration occurs (common to all viral diseases)
  7. Coccus(singular)
    sphere shape
  8. Coccus:
    Single plane division examples
    2plane division
    8plane division
    Grape like cluster
    • : diplococci and streptococci
    • : tetrad
    • : sarcina
    • : staphylococc
  9. Bacillus(singular) bacilli(plural)
    • :rod shape
    • Singlebacillus
    • Diplobacilli
    • Streptobacilli
    • Coccobacillus
  10. Spiral shape
    • Vibrio
    • Spirillum-relatively thick
    • Spirochete-more waves than spirillum and much thinner
  11. Star shaped and rectangular prokaryotes
    • Happens when organism loses their cell wall (for whatever reason)
    • Assumes shape based on the influential pressure of their environment
  12. Pili
    appendages that are short,straight hair-like fibers
  13. Sex pili
    transfer genetic material
  14. Fimbriae
    • (attachment pili)
    • adhesion to host tissue
  15. Glycocalyx
    adhearing layer of polysaccharides and small proteins
  16. Capsule
    glycocalyx is thick and tightly bound to the cell
  17. (Glycocalyx) Slime layer
    thin, flowing and less tightly bound
  18. Glycocalyx
    : form and purpose
    • Formed by various rods and cocci but NOT spiral bacteria
    • Purpose: Buffer between cell and external environment
    • Prevents nutrients from flowing away
    • As a capsule or slime layer – inhibits phagocytosis
  19. Biofilms definition
    slime layers and capsule key elements in formation of a series of encased microcolonies of bacteria
  20. Biofilms: purpose
    • attach to such surfaces as body tissues and Prosthetic devices
    • believed that most bacteria within nature live within biofilms
  21. Cell wall
    • prevents bacterial cells from rupturing when water pressure inside is greater than outside
    • Responsible for shape of cell
    • Serves as point of advantage for flagella
  22. Operation of flagella in bacteria
    • Rotates clockwise until it finds what it is looking for
    • Then goes to counterclockwise to move straight ahead
    • Reverts back to clockwise rotation when it is looking for something again
    • More flagella isn’t always better; the fastest mover happens to have only one flagellum
  23. CellMembrane
    • (Plasma membrane)
    • Nutrients are transported into cell
    • Transports waste material out of cell
    • Anchors the DNA during replication
    • Site for enzymes used in energy metabolism
    • Consists of 60% protein and 40% phospholipid
  24. Cytoplasm Gelatenous mass of:
    • Proteins(usually in the form of enzymes)
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Nucleic acids
    • Salts and inorganic ions
  25. Cytoplasm Foundation of a cell
    • Center for growth and metabolism
    • Various organelles found here
    • May have plasmids (small closed loops of DNA that are independent of the cell’s chromosome)
    • :Relatively few genes
    • :Carry genes for toxicity and drugresistance
  26. Endospores
    • Gram positive rods such as Bacillus and Clostridium
    • Purpose is for survival not reproduction
    • (Give the bacteria an escape in harsh conditions by forming a protective wall around DNA while cell dies)
  27. Binary Fission
    asexual process of replication
  28. Generation
    • (aka Doubling Time)
    • Interval of time until the completion of the next cell division
    • helps determine how long it will take before disease symptoms appear
  29. Temperature requirements for Growth:
    • Psychrophiles: 0-20 C
    • Mesophiles:20-40 C
    • Thermophiles40-90 C
Card Set
micro basics