Chemistry Part 2

  1. discovered by John Newland; trend that showed properties of elements seemed to repeat after every eigth element
    law of octaves
  2. a vertical column of elements in the periodic table; elements in a group share chemical properties
  3. law that states repeating physical and chemical properties of elements change periodically with their atomic number
    periodic law
  4. electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and that determines the atom's chemical properties
    valence electron
  5. horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
  6. elements in groups 1, 2, and 13-18; about half are metals and at room temp & atmospheric pressure, many are solids, while some are liquids or gases
    main-group element
  7. Group 1
    Alkali metals
  8. Group 2
    Alkaline earth metals
  9. group 17
  10. group 18
    noble gases
  11. elements in group 1 of the periodic table; lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium; they react with water to make alkaline solutions. They have one valence electron which make them very reactive. They are never found in nature and they are good conductors of electricity
    Alkali metals
  12. Elements of Group 2 of the periodic table(Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium, and Radium)
    -highly reactive
    -usually found as compounds rather than pure elements
    alkaline-earth metals
  13. K
    (what does this stand for and what are the units?)
    King Henry Died Monday Drinking Chocolate Milk

    Kilo, Hecto, Deka, Meter, Liter, Gram, Deci, Centi, Milli
  14. In Scientific Notation, will this number get smaller or larger?

    7.2 x 10-5
    the number will get smaller. it is .000072
  15. In Scientific notation will this number be large or smaller?

    9.5 x 105
    the number will get larger. it is 930,000
  16. what are the smaller parts of an atom called?
    subatomic particles
  17. Name the charge and location of each part of an atom:
    • 1)outside the nucleus, has a negative charge
    • 2)found in the nucleus of an atom and has a positive charge
    • 3)also found in the nucleus and has no charge;it is neutral
  18. The number of these in the nucleus is the atomic number, which determines an element's properties. The number of electrons is equal to the number of these.
  19. The atom's central region which is made up of protons and neutrons
  20. Law that states the closer two charges are, the greater the force between them is.
    Coulomb's Law
  21. the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons of the nucleus of an atom.
    mass number
  22. mass number-atomic number=?
    number of neutrons
  23. all of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
    electromagnetic spectrum
  24. the lowest state pf a quantized system
    ground state
  25. a state in which an atom has more energy than it does in the ground state
    excited state
  26. the principle that states that two or more particles of a certain class cannot be in the exact same energy state
    Pauli Exclusion Principle (p.96)
  27. the arrangement of electrons in an atom
    Electron Configuration
  28. Principle that states that electrons fill orbitals that have the lowest energy first
    Aufbau Principle
  29. This rule states that each orbital is occupied before any pairing occurs
    Hund's rule
  30. Atomic mass is expressed in ____?
    AMU or atomic mass unit
  31. Is the SI unit to measure the amount of a substance whose number of particles is the same as the number of atoms in 12g of carbon-12
  32. The mass in 1 mol of a substance
    molar mass
  33. 6.022 x 1023 aka the number of atoms of molecules in 1 mol
    Avogadro's Number
  34. elements of group 17 of the periodic table which combine with most metals to form salts
  35. Elements of group 18 that are unreactive and have eight electrons in its outer shell
    noble gases
  36. Groups 3-12 of the periodic table that are less reactive than the alkali and alkail-earth metals. They are good conductors of heat and are malleable
    Transition metals
  37. a solid or liquid mixture of two or more metals
  38. The total energy content of a sample
  39. Measurement of heat-related constants like specific heat or latent heat
  40. a measurement of the randomness or disorder of a system
  41. energy in a system that is avaliable for work (aka free energy)
    Gibbs energy
Card Set
Chemistry Part 2
Part two of review