OB Final- Chapter 11-12

  1. Organizational structure
    Formally dictates how jobs and tasks are divided and coordinated between individuals and groups within the company
  2. Elements of Organizational Structure
    • Work specialization
    • Chain of Command
    • Span of Control
    • Centralization
    • Formalization
  3. Work Specialization
    • The way in which tasks in an organization are divided into separate jobs.
    • Also known as division of labor.
    • Assembly line worker
  4. Chain of Command
    • In an organization essentially answers the question “Who reports to whom?”
    • Specific flow of authority down through the levels of an organization’s structure
  5. Span of Control
    • Represents how many employees the manager is responsible for in the organization.
    • Narrow spans of control allow managers to be much more hands-on with employees
  6. Centralization
    Refers to where decisions are formally made in organizations
  7. Formalization
    When there are many specific rules and procedures used to standardize behaviors and decisions
  8. Mechanistic organizations
    • Efficient, rigid, predictable, and standardized organizations that thrive in stable environments
    • Rigid and hierarchical chain of command, high degrees of work specialization, centralization of decision making, and narrow spans of control.
  9. Organic organization
    • Flexible, adaptive, outward-focused organizations that thrive in dynamic environments
    • Low levels of formalization, weak or multiple chains of command, low levels of work specialization, and wide spans of control
  10. Simple structures
    The most common form of organizational design, primarily because there are more small organizations than large ones
  11. Bureaucratic structure
    An organizational form that exhibits many of the facets of the mechanistic organization
  12. Functional structure
    An organizational form in which employees are grouped by the functions they perform for the organization
  13. Multi-Divisional
    Structures are bureaucratic organizational forms in which employees are grouped into divisions around products, geographic regions, or clients
  14. Geographic structures
    Generally based around the different locations where the company does business
  15. Matrix structures
    A more complex form of organizational design that tries to take advantage of two types of structures at the same time
  16. Organizational Culture
    The shared social knowledge within an organization regarding the rules, norms, and values that shape the attitudes and behaviors of its employees
  17. Three Major Components of Organizational Culture
    • Observable Artifacts
    • Espoused values
    • Basic underlying assumptions
  18. Observable artifacts
    • The manifestations of an organization’s culture that employees can easily see or talk about
    • Symbols can be found throughout an organization, from its corporate logo to the images it places on its Web site to the uniforms its employees wear
    • Physical structures are the organization’s buildings and internal office designs
    • Language reflects the jargon, slang, and slogans used within the walls of an organization.
  19. Espoused values
    The beliefs, philosophies, and norms that a company explicitly states.Published documents, verbal statements made to employees by managers
  20. Basic underlying assumptions
    Taken-for-granted beliefs and philosophies that are so ingrained that employees simply act on them rather than questioning the validity of their behavior in a given situation
  21. Four Types of General Culture Types
    • Fragmented Culture
    • Mercenary Culture
    • Communal Culture
    • Networked Culture
  22. Fragmented Culture
    An organizational culture type in which employees are distant and disconnected from one another
  23. Mercenary Culture
    An organizational culture type in which employees think alike but are not friendly to one another
  24. Communal Culture
    An organizational culture type in which employees are friendly to one another, but everyone thinks differently and does his or her own thing
  25. Networked Culture
    An organizational culture type in which employees are friendly to one another and all think alike
Card Set
OB Final- Chapter 11-12