1. Classical Experimental Design
    • E O1 X O2
    • E O1 O2
  2. Posttest Only Control Group
    • E X O
    • E O
  3. Soloman 4 Group Design
    • E O1 X O2
    • E O1 O2
    • E X O2
    • E O2
  4. One Group Ex Post Facto Design
    X O
  5. One Group Before-After Design
    O X O
  6. Two Group Ex Post Facto Design
    • X_O
    • __O
  7. Time Series Design
    O O O O X O O O O
  8. Multiple Time Series Design
    • O O O O X O O O O
    • O O O O _ O O O O
  9. Counterbalanced Design
    • E X1O X2O X3O X4O
    • E X2O X3O X4O X1O
    • E X3O X4O X1O X2O
    • E X4O X1O X2O X3O
  10. What is statistical regression?
    Tendency of groups that have been selected for study on the basis of extreme scores to move toward the average on second testing.
  11. Hawthorne Effect
    The change that might occur as a result of the respondents knowing that they are being tested.
  12. Two major disadvantages of experiments.
    • 1. Artificiality
    • 2. General difficulty of doing experimental research in terms of obtaining human subjects or situations where one can properly manipulate the variables to be investigated.
  13. Double blind experimental design.
    Neither the subjects nor the researcher know which group is receiving the treatment.
  14. What does verstehen allow for?
    • 1. Less prejudgement
    • 2. Less disturbing to respondents than experiments.
    • 3. More flexable and natural as opposed to lab exp.
    • 4. Contradictions between actions and statements are readily available.
  15. What must researchers decide beforehand in dealing with participant observation?
    The degree to which they wish to be privy to criminal activity.
  16. Which type of questionnaire provides for data that is easily tabulated into quantitative data analysis? Open or closed ended?
    Closed ended
  17. What is the chief potential problem of interviews?
    The quality, integrity, and skill of the interviewer. (example, the way a question is worded could alter the response.)
  18. What are the common problems of Victim Surveys?
    • 1. Cost of large samples.
    • 2. False reports.
    • 3. Mistaken reporting.
    • 4. Poor memory.
    • 5. Telescoping.
    • 6. Sampling Bias
    • 7. Over or under reporting.
    • 8. Interviewer effects.
    • 9. Coding unreliability and mechanical errors.
    • 10. Problems measuring certain crimes.
  19. Define Physical Trace Analysis.
    Study of deposits, accretion of matter, and other indirect substances produced by human interaction.
  20. What does secondary analysis utilize? What forms of data?
    Data that were previously gathered for other purposes. Historical and achival data.
  21. What are the limitations of official data?
  22. What type of unobtrusive measure is the Humphrey's study of homosexuals?
    Disguised observation.
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