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- A set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee, initiates work-related effort, and determines its direction, intensity, and persistence.
- Motivation is a critical consideration because job performance is largely a function of two factors: motivation and ability.
The cognitive process that employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses.
Represents the belief that successful performance will result in some outcome(s). Instrumentality is a set of subjective probabilities, each ranging from 0 to 1 that successful performance will bring a set of outcomes
Reflects the anticipated value of the outcomes associated with performance
Motivation that is controlled by some contingency that depends on task performance.
Motivation that is felt when task performance serves as its own reward.
Goal setting theory
- Views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of effort.
- Assigning employees specific and difficult goals will result in higher levels of performance.
Moderators on Task Performance
- Task complexity
- Goal commitment
Consists of updates on employee progress toward goal attainment
Reflects how complicated the information and actions involved in a task are, as well as how much the task changes.
The degree to which a person accepts a goal and is determined to try to reach it.
Acknowledges that motivation doesn’t just depend on your own beliefs and circumstances but also on what happens to other people.
Effects of motivation on performance and commitment
- Motivation has a strong positive effect on job performance
- Motivation has a moderate positive effect on organizational commitment
The willingness to be vulnerable to an authority based on positive expectations about the authority’s actions and intentions.
The perceived fairness of an authority’s decision making
The degree to which the behaviors of an authority are in accordance with generally accepted moral norms
Your personality traits include a general propensity to trust others.
Trust is rooted in a rational assessment of the authority’s trustworthiness
It depends on feelings toward the authority that go beyond any rational assessment
Theory of cognitive moral development
As people age and mature, they move through several stages of moral development—each more mature and sophisticated than the prior one.
Three Different Stages of Cognitive Moral Development
Stage 5 and 6 of the Cognitive Moral Development
- Step 5- Protect Individual Rights
- Step 6- Follow universal principles
Step 3 and 4 of the Cognitive Moral Development
- Step 3- Earn the approval of others
- Step 4- Follow rules and laws
Step 1 and 2 of the Cognitive Moral Developement
- Step 1- Avoid Punishment
- Step 2- Maintain exchange relationship
- Reflects relatively permanent changes in an employee’s knowledge or skill that result from experience
- The more employees learn, the more they bring to the table when they come to work.
- Refers to the process of generating and choosing from a set of alternatives to solve a problem.
- The more knowledge and skills employees possess, the more likely they are to make accurate and sound decisions.
The knowledge and skills that distinguish experts from novices and less experienced people.
A systematic effort by organizations to facilitate the learning of job-related knowledge and behavior
- What employees can typically learn only through experience.
- Up to 90 percent of the knowledge contained in organizations occurs in tacit form
The kind of information you are likely to think about when you picture someone sitting down at a desk to learn.Relatively easily communicated.
Two contingencies used to increase desired behavior
- Positive reinforcement occurs when a positive outcome follows a desired behavior.
- Most common type of reinforcement
- Increased pay, promotion
- Negative reinforcement occurs when an unwanted outcome is removed following a desired behavior.
- Perform a task to not get yelled out
Two contingencies used to decrease desired behavior
- Punishment occurs when an unwanted outcome follows an unwanted behavior.
- Suspension, firing
- Extinction occurs when there is the removal of a consequence following an unwanted behavior.
- Stop laughing at off-color jokes
Rational decision-making model
A step-by-step approach to making decisions that maximize outcomes by examining all available alternatives.
The notion that decision makers simply do not have the ability or resources to process all available information and alternatives to make an optimal decision.