Psychology Final

  1. Consciousness
    An organisms awareness of its own self and surroundings
  2. Alternate states of consciuosness
    mental states, other than ordinary waking consciousness, found during sleep, dreaming, psycoactive drug use, hypnosis, fasting, runners high, so on
  3. controlled processes
    mental activities requiting focused attention that generally interfere with other ongoing activities - demanding job or learning something new
  4. automatic precesses
    mental activities requiring minimal attention and having little impact on other activities - driving "auto pilot"
  5. REM sleep
    a stage of sleep marked by Rapid-eye-movement, high-frequency brain waves, paralysis of larger muscles, and dreaming
  6. repair/ resoration theory
    sleep serves a recuperative function, allowing organisms to repair or replenish key factors
  7. evolutionary/ Circadian theory
    as a part of circadian rhythms, sleep evolved to conserve energy and as a protection from predators
  8. dream analysis
    In Freud's psychoanalysis, interpreting the underlying true meaning of to reveal unconscious processes
  9. Manifest Content
    According to Freud dream analysis, the surface content of a dream, which contains dream symbols that distort and disguise the dreams true meaning
  10. Latent Content
    The true, unconscious meaning of a dream, according to Freudian dream theory
  11. activation-synthesis hypothesis
    Hobson's theory that dreams are byproducts of random stimulation of brain cells; the brain attempts to combine (or synthesize) this spontaneous activity into coherent patterns, known as dreams
  12. cognitive view of dreams
    Dreams of an important part of information processing of everyday life
  13. phychoactive drugs
    chemicals that change conscious awareness, mood or perception - caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, uppers, downers, etc
  14. drug abuse
    drug taking that causes emotional or physical harm to the drug user of others - drug consumption is compulsive, frequent, and intense
  15. addiciton
    broad term describing a compulsion to use a specific drug or engage in a certain activity
  16. psychological dependence
    mental desire or craving to achieve the effects produced by a drug
  17. physical dependence
    changes in bodily processes that make a drug necessary necessary for minimum daily functioning
  18. withdarw
    discomfort and distress, including physical pain and intense cravings, experienced after stopping the use of addictive drugs
  19. tolerence
    decreased sensitivity to a drug brought about by its continuous use
  20. depressants
    psychoactive drugs that act on the CNS to suppress or slow bodily processes and reduce overall responsiveness
  21. stimulants
    drugs that act on the brain and nervous system to increase their overall activity and general responsiveness
  22. Hallucinogens
    drugs that produce sensory or perceptual distortions called hallucinations
  23. learning
    a relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes resulting from practice or experience
  24. conditioning
    the process of learning associations between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses
  25. classical conditioning
    learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus (NS) becomes paired (associated) with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to elicit a conditioned response (CR)
  26. unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
    stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response (UCR)(natural response - food) without previous conditioning
  27. unconditioned response (UCR)
    unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) that occurs without previous training (dogs salavatate at food)
  28. neutral stimulus (NS)
    a stimulus that, before conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response of interest (the bell)
  29. conditioned stimulus (CS)
    previously neutral stimulus that, through repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) now causes a conditioned response (CR)
  30. conditioned response (CR)
    learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus (CS) that occurs because of previous repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
  31. conditioned emotional response (CER)
    a classically conditioned emotional response to a previously neutral stimulus (NS) - little albert
  32. behaviorism
    Watson's (of little albert fame) approach that explains behavior as a result of observable stimuli (in the environment) and observable responses (behavioral actions). Watson felt that psychology must be an objective science, studying only overt behaviors without considering internal mental activity.
  33. stimulus generalization
    learned response to stimuli that are like the original conditioned stimulus (little albert's fear of white things)
  34. stimulus discrinination
    leaned response to a specific stimulus but not to other, similar stimuli
  35. extinction
    gradual weakening or suppression of a previously conditioned response
  36. operant conditioning
    learning in which voluntary responses are controlled by their consequences
  37. primary reinforcement

    seconday reinforcement
    primary - increase a response because they satisfy a biological need - food, water, sex

    seconday - increase response because of learned value - money, material possessions
  38. Positive reinforcement

    Negative reinforcement
    Positive - add a stimulus to strengthen a response

    Negative - take away a stimulus to strengthen a response
  39. continuous reinforcement

    partial schedule of reinforcement
    every correct response is reinforced

    partial - some, but not all, correct responses are reinforces ( slot machines)
  40. shaping
    reinforcement delivered for successive approximation of the desired response - teaching in steps, reinforcing each step
  41. avoidance behavior
    natrually avoiding a punisher
  42. modeling
    parent spanking a child for hitting another child - may unintentionally teach hititng
  43. temporary suppression
    punishment that only suppresses the behavior temporarily - cars slow when near police car but speed up again
  44. learned helplessness
    people who stay in abusive homes aquire a general sence of powerlessness and make no further attempts to escape
  45. Tips for reinforcemtn and punishment
    • 1. Feedback - provide clear and immediate
    • 2. Timing - right away
    • 3. Consistency
  46. memory
    internal record or representaion of some prior even or experience
Card Set
Psychology Final
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