1. Acetylcholine
  2. Epinephrine
  3. Norepinephrine
    Noradrenaline: neurotransmitter
  4. Amygdala
    Limbic system: essential for emotional learning and expression. Also modulates memory consolidation by emotional state
  5. Antagonist
    Drug inhibiting a neurotransmitter by slowing its release, production, or persistence. May block receptors of the neurotransmitter
  6. AP5
    D-2-amino-5-phosponovalerate. antagonist of NMDA receptors
  7. Basal Ganglia
    Forebrain components of the extra pyramidal motor system including the striatum
  8. Behavioral LTP
    Changes in synaptic efficacy due to memory formation
  9. Cell assembly
    Hebb's notion of a local circuit of connected neurons that develop to represent a specific precept or concept
  10. Cerebellum
    Major structure of the brain stem involved in motor control. Critical for skeletal muscle responses
  11. Cognitive map
    Systematic representation of topology in the brain
  12. Cortical column
    Functional and anatomical organization in the cortex. Similar functioning cells are arranged vertically across layers in parallel columns
  13. Cued learning
    Nonspatial learning: learning guided by a stimulus
  14. Spatial learning
    Learning guided by the use of spatial relations among external stimuli
  15. Declarative memory
    Everyday facts or information includes both episodic and semantic information
  16. Double dissociation
    Damage in A but not B results in failure in task X but not Y. Damage in B but not in A results in failure in task Y but not X
  17. Egocentric space
    Position in environment relative to the orientation of the body ex left or right
  18. Explicit memory
    Memory expression based on conscious memory recollection
  19. Episodic memory
    Representation of life experiences requires conscious recollection
  20. Fornix
    • Connects hippocampus with other hypothalamus thalamus septum and brain stem
    • Modulates arousal and consolidation
  21. Implicit memory
    Unconscious changes in performance due to previous experiences
  22. Hippocampus
    Contains Ammons horn( ca1 and ca3) dentate gyrus and subiculum
  23. Limbic system
    Emotional circuits in the brain including the amygdala septum and prefrontal cortex and areas of the mid brain
  24. Ionotropic receptors
    Neurotransmitter receptor found in post synaptic elements and allow charged molecules (ions) to flow
  25. Metabotropic receptor
    Do not open channels and doesn�t directly affect the membrane potential but tend to have longer lasting effects
  26. Modulation of memory
    • Facilitation or retardation of memory consolidation mediated by hormones
    • Adrenaline via vagus nerve to the amygdala is most relating to emotional memory
  27. Striatum
    • Subcortical structure of the forebrain contains the caudate and putamen
    • Critical for habit memory due to functions in the extra pyramidal motor system
  28. Semantic memory
    Ones body of world knowledge and organization of memory
  29. Allocentric space
    Position in environment independent of orientation or location of subject
  30. Packard and McGaugh
    • Showed first double dissociation experiment showed cognitive map vs habit
    • Rotated the T-Maze experiment.
    • Found that regularly trained rats used a "cognitive map" and Overtrained rats practiced "habit"
  31. Place cells
    Found that some cells react to a specific place and a specific intention. Cells in rats in T-maze react to intersection and turning left, but not turning right
  32. Tolman
    Rotated T-maze showed early signs of multiple types of learning my observing place vs response in rats
  33. Urbach-Wiethe disease
    Selective bilateral calcification of the amygdala but not the hippocampus
  34. Category specific amnesia
    • Due to damage in neocortex
    • 1 category of amnesia and rest of memory is fine
  35. STM and LTM
    Both created and stored in the neocortex but requires hippocampus for consolidation
  36. Archetype
    • Typical example
    • Brain categorizes information and conforms it into an archetype aka stereotype
  37. Alex Martin
    • Used the subtraction method to look for brain activity while naming things in two trials for two categories
    • Found separate brain real estate for each category
  38. Prosopagnosia
    Can�t recognize faces
  39. Face cells
    In temporal cortex cares about particular faces and only responds to specific aspect of the face
  40. Grandmother cell hypothesis
    • One cell for one memory
    • Jk hypothesis
  41. Greenough
    • Rat Hilton
    • Examined bushiness of dendrites in parallel fibers in cerebellar cortex and increased synapses to Purkinje cells
  42. Purkinje cells
    • Main cells in cerebellar cortex
    • Sends inhibitory inputs to deep nuclei
  43. Mossy fibers
    • Excitatory inputs for Purkinje cells but work indirectly
    • Originates from brain stem nuclei and run via parallel granule cells perpendicular to the Purkinje cells
  44. Climbing fibers
    • Another excitatory input to the Purkinje cells
    • Originates from the inferior olivary nucleus of the medulla
    • Wraps around cell body of Purkinje cell with all or nothing influence
  45. Long term depression
    • Long term decrease in synaptic activity can last for multiple hours
    • Discovered by Ito
  46. LTD of mossy fibers/ climbing fibers
    • Central for cerebellum contribution of motor learning
    • Equals inhibition of Purkinje cells = no inhibition of interpositus
  47. Interpositus
    • Bottom of cerebellum vital for motor learning
    • Activates red nucleus
  48. Red nucleus
    • Required for blinking circuitry
    • Without = no learning
    • With = instant learning
  49. Richard Thompson
    Tone puff eye blink reflex learning
  50. CS Tone
    Tone => auditory nuclei=> pontine nuclei=> mossy fibers => cerebellar cortex (purkinje cells) =| interpositus
  51. US Puff
    Puff=> trigminal nucleus=> inferior olive=> climbing fibers=> cerebellar cortex (purkinje cells)=| interpositus
  52. CS + US
    Together activate LTD when mossy and climbing fibers work together
  53. UR + CR
    Interpositus => red nucleus => cranial motor nuclei=> blink ( UR + CR).
  54. Extinction
    Conditioned response goes away when paired stimulus is unpaired
  55. Inferior Olive
    Vital for tone + puff learning. Without it rabbits showed extinction when conditioned stimulus is still paired.
  56. Ribot's Law
    Memories need some time before becoming fixed
  57. Temporal retrograde amnesia
    Usually due to trauma. Cannot recall information prior to traumatic event
  58. Anterograde amnesia
    Cannot recall information following trauma.
  59. PET scan study of tone+puff
    • 1) tone/puff unpaired
    • 2) tone+puff paired
    • 3) test with subtraction logic
    • Conclusion: people with cerebellum damage don�t learn reflex as well
  60. Miyashita
    • Random image pairing. Initially 1 neuron only cares about 1 image. After pairing 1 neuron cares about 2 images.
    • Studied the ventral visual stream. STM vision and LTM storage
  61. Ventral stream
    Whats what
  62. Dorsal stream
    Whats where
  63. Model on storing declarative memory
    STM from neocortex=> hippocampus=> LTM in neocortex
  64. Merzenich
    Somatosensory cortex has plastic neurons due to experiences
  65. Somatosensory cortex
    Homunculus aka brain real estate for sensory info
  66. Weinberger
    • Does the auditory cortex learn?
    • Experiment does tuning curve of an auditory cell shift.
    • 1) find cell of best frequency
    • 2) Pavlovian conditioning: foot shock paired with neighboring frequencies
    • 3) find cell again
  67. Tuning curve
    Auditory cells are tuned to a specific frequency and best respond to one frequency
  68. Old philosophy on senses
    Sensory cortex couldn�t learn because basic sensory function doesn�t change
  69. Shift in tuning curve
    Shift does appear with conditioning. However hippocampus vital for recall. Tuning curve will unshift the next day if hippocampus is destroyed.
  70. Procedural memory
    Muscle memory and habit
  71. Packard and McGaugh
    • Visual vs spatial discrimination
    • 1) see ball get on ball at fixed spot
    • 2) go to same spot with hidden ball
    • 3) go to seen ball in new spot
    • Results: control goes to new ball. No hippocampus goes to new ball. No striatum go to hidden ball.
  72. McDonald and White
    • Triple Disociation Test
    • Focused on the striatum, hippocampus, and amygdala.
    • Showed triple disociation with rats in a radial maze given various training
  73. Squire Weather Prediction task
    • 1) set of cards correlate with sun or rain. Cards not perfect correlation but probability.
    • 2) not conscious learning, not declarative memory recall
    • 3) stimulus and response learning
  74. Weather Prediction Results
    • Parkinson�s = no SR learning
    • HM/ CAS = normal learning
    • When asked about test after
    • Parkinson�s = normal recall
    • HM/ CAS = fail to recall
    • Shows double dissociation!
  75. Figure 10.5 kermandi and Joseph
    • Monkeys trained on specific sequences of light
    • SR learning: specific sequence of light = get juice
    • Cell responds to L light only after U light appears
    • Cell responds to particular part of sequence
    • Cells in striatum respond to robot SR
  76. Nondeclarative memory
    Skill learning, priming, and conditioning aka nonconscious learning
  77. Skill learning
    Muscle memory mostly in basal ganglia, motor cortex, and cerebellum
  78. Priming
    Cued recalling of an earlier exposure
  79. Perceptual priming
    Sensory cues like vision and perception works mostly in frontal lobe
  80. Conceptual priming
    Stimulus recalls past thought reduces activity in frontal lobe
  81. Conditioning
    Simple delay and trace conditioning
  82. Trace conditioning
    • CS is brief and followed by a blank "trace" period then the US.
    • Hippocampus and neocortex dependent
  83. Simple delayed conditioning
    • Standard CS and US pairing
    • Cerebellar circuit
  84. CAS
    • Classic amnesia syndrome = HM amnesia
    • Can answer primed word completion test but not word recall tests
  85. Priming locations
    • Medical temporal lobe = no good for priming
    • Neocortex = good for priming
  86. Patient MS
    • Visual cortex damage = Missing sight
    • Tested for priming
    • Declarative memory = fine
    • Priming ability = poor
  87. Priming test or MS
    • 1) show words list a
    • 2) show new words list b
    • Priming = less active sensory cortex = more faster recognition = more efficient and less energy
  88. Muella and Pilzecker
    • Students of Ebbinghaus
    • 2 word list study
    • Learning list 2 interrupted learning of list 1
    • More time in-between learning two lists = less interruption of learning
  89. Cereletti and bini
    1938 first to discover electroconvulsive shock
  90. ECS
    Electroconvulsive shock still used today for treatment of depression
  91. Duncan
    1949 light+shock in one compartment. Other side safe. Rat learns active avoidance to avoid shock.
  92. ECS in rats
    Takes about 1 hr for memory consolidation in rats. Rats with ECS don�t learn shock avoidance well. ECS has an effect like retrograde amnesia
  93. McGaugh and Gold
    • Why is retrograde amnesia as loss of recent memory first?
    • Temporally graded memory loss occurs becuase consolidation is interrupted by truamatic event.
  94. Memory gradient graph
    • Retrograde enhancement gradient: new memories = more malleable.
    • Retrograde amnesia gradient: new memory = less malleable
  95. Temporally graded retrograde amnesia
    Info gained immediately before trauma is lost, but info gained longer ago is retained.
  96. Retrograde enhancement gradient
    After trauma the enhancement of memory decreases as time goes on
  97. Retrograde amnesia gradient
    After trauma new memories are most susceptible to loss.
  98. Retrograde enhancement and retrograde amnesia
    • Explains why there is both retrograde amnesia and anterograde amnesia in patients suffering from head trauma.
    • Trauma hinders both memory storage and memory recall
  99. McGaugh learning/ performance distinction
    At the time the status quo: drug=> train/ learn=> wait => test (no distinction)
  100. McGaugh's way
    Train/ learn => drugs => wait => test. Creates distinction because drugs don�t effect learning or recall phase, only consolidation phase
  101. Strychnine
    Rat poison used in a really small dose to enhance memory
  102. Inverted U
    McGaugh discovered the right drug at right dose enhances memory and performance. Too little or too much drug inhibits memory/ performance
  103. Best memory enhancing drugs?
    Stimulants = amphetamines = catechamines = fight or flight hormones in adrenal glands.
  104. What is the body's natural amphetamine?
    Adrenal hormone = adrenaline and Norepinephrine ( in brain)
  105. Why does body accept morphine?
    An endogenous morphine naturally exists in body
  106. Morphine and memory
    Soldiers given morphine within two hrs of injury are less likely to get PTSD
  107. Morphine
    Opiate used to numb severe pain by acting in the central nervous system
  108. PTSD
    Post traumatic stress disorder an extremely painful memory never goes away and inhibits daily life.
  109. How do amphetamines or adrenaline enhance memory?
    • 1) adrenaline activates the vagus nerve
    • 2) adrenaline and glucose work together to activate the amygdala
  110. Flight or fight response
    Triggered by stressful situation. Stress activates adrenal glands. Adrenaline goes through blood stream to vagus nerve. In the brain Norepinephrine also activates vagus nerve. Vagus nerve regulates heart rate.
  111. Epinephrine
    • Adrenaline
    • Adds lots of glucose into the blood stream during stress. Body uses sugar to run or fight.
  112. Nucleus of the solitary tract
    • Aka nucleus tractus solitarii
    • Connects the vagus nerve in the medulla to the amygdala
  113. Lidocaine
    Numbing drug which renders part of the brain useless
  114. Is the NTS vital for emotional memory?
    Yes. Test with lidocaine in NTS => train/ learn=> drug = memory loss ( in rats with enhanced memory
  115. No NTS = No Memory enhancement
    NTS activated by Norepinephrine. Norepinephrine stimulates the brain to enhance memory. No NTS = regular memory
  116. Propranolol
    Inhibits Norepinephrine receptors. Blocks memory enhancing effect of Norepinephrine
  117. Stress
    MODULATES memory can either enhance or hinder
  118. Test amygdala and memory
    • Legion amygdala=> train=> induce adrenaline=> record = no memory enhancement.
    • Measure amount of Norepinephrine present in amygdala
    • Intverted U relationship for memory and dose
  119. McGaugh more Norepinephrine
    Shock chamber and 24 hr recall. More Norepinephrine = longer reenter time
  120. Does the amygdala store emotional memory?
    No. Amygdala only modulates another system
  121. 1985 McGaugh declarative memory system
    Normal people remember emotional info more than neutral info. Propranolol inhibits amygdala, Propranolol subjects have almost no preference.
  122. Cahill PET scan and amygdala
    • Experiment: watch=> wait 3 weeks=> test memory
    • Watch 2 films while in pet scan. ( men only) more glucose in amygdala = better recall
  123. Important amygdala results
    • 1. Propranolol selectively blocks emotional memory
    • 2. German without amygdala = person on Propranolol
    • 3. Amygdala not needed for declarative memory
  124. Alkire Experiment
    • Watch film=> inject adrenaline=> wait 1 week=> Test
    • Found an inverted U relationship for cortisol and memory.
  125. Packard, McGaugh, and Cahill Figure 12.2
    • Morris Water Maze Revisted
    • 2 Tests
    • Training=> inject amphetamine to stimulate region=> wait 24hr => lidocaine amygdala => test
    • A. Spatial test where position is constant but hidden.
    • B. Cued test where positision is variable but visible.
    • Results: Amphetamine in amygdala enhances performance on both tasks. Amphetamine aids in spatial task for the hippocampus, but not for cue task.
    • Amphetamine aids in cue task for striatum, but not for spatial task.
    • Shows double dissociation and amygdala modulates other regions of brain.
  126. GABA
    Neurotransmitter which inhibits the release of norepinephrine.
  127. McGaugh view
    Memory helps predict the future
  128. Glucocorticoids
    Stress hormone responsible for " i know it but cant remember" feeling
  129. Cortisol
    Has inverted U effect on memory. Depends on dose and situation. AKA MODULATION
  130. Cahill ice water test
    • Men ice vs no ice = better recall with ice (increased coritsol)
    • Women ice vs no ice = equal recall (despite increased cortisol)
  131. Sex differences in the brain
    Men and women react differently due to different brain hormones present mostly due to menstrual cycle
  132. Why is estrogen important?
    Hippocampus => pyramidal cells => full of cortisol and estrogen receptors
  133. Rerun study
    • 3 groups of women
    • 1. Low estrogen/ low progesterone = early follicular stage
    • 2. High estrogen/ low progesterone= late follicular stage
    • 3. Low estrogen/ high progesterone = mid flutor stage
    • Group 1 neutral recall
    • Group 2 decrease recall
    • Group 3 increase recall as more cortisol enters brain
    • Why? Unknown
  134. Left and right amygdala
    • Men use right amygdala recall mostly the gist
    • Women use left amygdala recall mostly the details
  135. Reanalysis of PET amygdala
    Propranolol ( beta blocker) reduces the gist memory in men and reduces the details memory in women.
  136. Oral contraceptive effect on memory
    • Normal cycling women recall details of emotional scene best
    • Normal men recall gist of emotional scene best
    • Oral contraceptive women recall gist of emotional scene best ( at like men)
    • Shows that social norms are not an influence
  137. Cahill's saying
    Science: women = men + ~ estrogen
  138. HM
    Epilepsy. Removed hippocampus and amygdala. Defines CAS.
  139. MTL
    Medial temporal lobe main region causing temporally graded memory loss
  140. McGaugh and Gold
    Why is retrograde amnesia as loss of recent memory first?
  141. Memory gradient graph
    • Retrograde enhancement gradient: new memories = more malleable.
    • Retrograde amnesia gradient: new memory = less malleable
  142. Temporally graded retrograde amnesia
    Info gained immediately before trauma is lost, but info gained longer ago is retained.
  143. Retrograde enhancement gradient
    After trauma the enhancement of memory decreases as time goes on
  144. Retrograde amnesia gradient
    After trauma new memories are most subceptible to loss.
  145. Retrograde enhancement and retrograde amnesia
    • Explains why there is both retrograde amnesia and anterograde amnesia in patients suffering from head trauma.
    • Trauma hinders both memory storage and memory recall
  146. Front ventricle & thalamus
    Organ of common sense
  147. Basics of synapse
    Synaptic junction where ions flow from post to pre mostly ion gated
  148. Plasticity
    Brains ability to adapt and be fluid
  149. Memory
    Active construction project
  150. Aphasia
    Memory disorder inability to recall
  151. Tools in toolbox
    MRI FMRI EEG MEG electrical recording animal research
  152. 4 C's
    • Connection: cajal
    • Cognition: james
    • Compartmentalization: james
    • Cognition: james
  153. 1860-1870 Broca's area
    Found that brain is not symmetrical. Came up with idea of zones in the brain
  154. Robert hooke
    "form reflects function" not really in brain
  155. Cell Theory
    • Cajal
    • 1. Brain is made of neurons
    • 2. Law of polarization: neurons are unidirectional
  156. Reticulum theory
    Golgi mesh theory wrong!
  157. Charles Sherrington
    Interactive action of the nervous system. Coined the phrase synapse
  158. Ebbinghaus
    • Nonsense syllables and learning.
    • Quantified learning with the unit "savings"
    • savings = retention in terms of reduction of learning trials
    • 1. Forgetting is non linear
    • 2. Distributed is better than mass practice (cramming)
  159. Ribot's law of regression
    • Loss of memory is inversely related to the time elapsed between event and injury.
    • Memories need a certain time to be organized and fixed
  160. Cognition
    Memories at the highest level of analysis. Psychological level
  161. Compartmentalization
    Memory is stored throughout the brain but regions are organized to certain info
  162. Consolidation
    Memory needs time to be stored and fixed
  163. Connection
    Neurons connect brain circuitry to body
  164. Pavlov
    Conditioned reflex aka SR
  165. Behaviorism
    I robot SR Thorndike puzzle boxes anticognition
  166. Cognitivism
    I think cognition James principles of psychology
  167. Alzheimer�s disease
    Memory degradation
  168. Korsakoff's syndrome
    Little consolidation of info common in alcoholics
  169. Thorndike
    Learning is a gradual connection of sr
  170. Electrical properties
    Ca+2 determines length of action potential
  171. Serotonin
    • Metabotropic receptor
    • Serotononin => ATP=> cAMP=> PKA=| K+
  172. Glutamate
    Opens ion gated receptors to Na+ to flow in cell and K+ out
  173. Habitualization
    Fewer neurotransmitters released from the post synaptic junction to the next neuron
  174. NMDA
    Regulates Ca+2 flow
  175. Action potential
    • Glutamate =>Mg+ leaves NMDA receptor=>Ca+2 flows in
    • Ca+2 => cAMP=> PKA=> close K+ channels
  176. CREB1= make long term memory
    Serotonin=> ATP=> cAMP=> PKA => nucleus=> CREB1
  177. CREB2 "evil": no memory
    Activated by MAPK
  178. MAPK
    May inhibit creb1 and activate creb2.
  179. LTP
    Long term potentiation: long lasting epsp. A permanent increase in synaptic efficiency
  180. Aplysia
    Sea slug
  181. Thordike Law of Effect
    Reinforcement enhances sr connection aka learning
  182. Koehler "insight learning"
    Nonlinear learning a sudden flash of insight.
  183. Tolman cognitive map
    Animals can elastically use a cognitive map to efficiently go around detours
  184. Fredric Bartlett
    • Schema power to remember. Experiment:
    • 1. Story about indians
    • 2. Measure content obtained
    • Result: memory is a reconstructive process (not regurgitation.
  185. Schema
    An organization of information in the mind
  186. Habitulization
    Neurons receive same input but sends out less neurotransmitters (desensitize)
  187. Dishabituation
    Break the habit by adding a new stimulus
  188. Dr Kendall
    • Gill redrawal reflex in aplysia.
    • Sensory neuron sends instructions to motor neuron via a ganglion L7.
  189. Sensitized reflex arc
    Sensory neurons receive the same input but sends out more neurotransmitters to the motor neuron to get an enhanced reaction
  190. Guzowski and McGaugh
    Creb-antisense = blocks creb1. Used a cannula to inject creb antisense into hippocampus. Result: blocked long term memory formation
  191. 1973 bliss and lomo
    Discovered LTP. Gave a tetanus zap to neuron to create a long lasting action potential
  192. LTP Uses
    • 1 prominent in the hippocampus
    • 2 develops rapidly
    • 3 lasts long hours
    • 4 synaptic specificity
    • 5 associative
    • 6 theta rhythm
  193. Theta study
    • Larson and lynch
    • Hippocampus as oscillating theta rhythm used to navigate the world
  194. Block LTP with AP5
    AP5 blocks NMDA receptor. No effect on EPSPs.
  195. AMPA receptor
    • Regulates neurotransmittance in the hippocampus
    • Allows Na+ and K+, but no Ca+2 to flow more easily.
  196. Richard Morris
    • Water maze task. Rats with hippocampal damage must find a fixed hidden platform.
    • AP5 definitely hinders performance by numbing the hippocampus but doesn�t effect all memory
  197. Hull
    SR learning is the only type of learning at its like a chain link fence
  198. Memory errors according to Barlett
    • 1. Sharpening learning
    • 2. Additions and omissions
    • 3. Normalization/ rationalization
  199. Dr. Laftus
    Researches false memory at UCI.studies bartlettization of memoryConcludes that certain cues and induce a false memory hence "leading the witness" is big problem
  200. Scoville and Milner 1957
    Classic Amnesia Syndrome famous patients HM and IS
  201. Classic Amnesia syndrome
    • 1. Intact LTM
    • 2. Intact STM
    • 3. Intact sensation and motor function
    • 4. Intact intelligence
    • Cannot consolidate STM to LTM
  202. Patient H.M.
    • Removal of hippocampus, amygdala, and some of the surrounding cortex due to severe epilepsy.
    • After surgery severe anterograde amnesia. Could not consolidate new memories, best recollection of childhood memories.
    • Intact motor function and intelligence. Capable of very short term memory.
  203. Patient IS
    Damage to Amgydala ONLY. Not CAS declarative memory is just fine. A bit emotionally insensitive.
  204. Patient Chuck
    • Severe damage to parts of the hippocampus
    • NOT a CAS patient
    • Still was able to recall fragmented memories
    • Bits of the hippocampus worked to form broken memories
  205. Patient EP
    • Virus destroyed hippocampus surrounding cortex and the amygdala
    • CAS symptoms
    • Has LTM and STM
    • Motor function and intelligence are fine
    • Cannot consolidate new memories
    • No declarative or conscious memory recall
    • Yes procedural and emotional memory
  206. Patient RB
    • Stroke destroyed CA1 layer of hippocampus
    • 50% CAS symptoms
    • Had LTM temporally graded amnesia motor function but a broken consolidation circuit
  207. Anatomy of hippocampus
    • Ammons Horn ( CA1&CA3) the dentate gyrus and the subiculum
    • Pryamidal cells in Ammons Horn are interwoven with mossy fibers in dentate gyrus. Information flows to subiculum through the fornix to other areas of the brain.
  208. Test for transitivity and symmetry
    • 1. Train for ab and xy pairs
    • 2. Train for bc and yz pairs
    • 3. Test for ac and xz pairs aka transitivity
    • 4. Test for cb and zy pairs aka symmetry
    • Result: Normal rats could transfer info. Hippocampal damage rats could not.
    • Normal rats could do symmetry. Hippocampal damage rats could barely do it.
  209. Delayed Nonmatch to Sample (DNMS)
    • Subject must remember a stimulus after a delayed period without the aide of cues. Three phases:
    • 1. Sample phase: view the stimulus cant respond
    • 2. Delay phase: stimulus cannot be seen
    • 3. Choice phase: subject must select an alternative stimulus to earn a reward
  210. Figure 5.2 animal models
    • For DNMS and Delayed response, normal monkeys did much better than HM monkeys.
    • For barrier motor skill task and lifesaver motor skill tasks, normal and HM monkeys had the same results
  211. Hippocampus cortex
    Main culprit in CAS not just the hippocampus
  212. PET Scan
    Positron emission topography. Inject radioactive glucose into blood use PET to get image
  213. Subtraction logic
    • Stimulation (test) - control (normal brain activity) = difference.
    • Worked for vision and visual cortex.
  214. Why didn't the subtraction logic work on the hippocampus?
    Subtraction logical fails if the structure is always active. Hippocampus never stops working.
  215. Imaging
    Has lots of variability so data must be normalized for analysis.
  216. Imaging and memory
    Compare images while learning with images a day later
  217. Cahill Memory PET Scans
    • 1. Subject listens to a list of words
    • 2. Wait 24 hours
    • 3. Free verbalized recall of list
    • Result: more active hippocampus = more memory
  218. fMRI
    Functional magnetic resonance imaging based on amount of oxygenated hemoglobin in blood
  219. 1998 memory and imaging
    • Test: scan pics=> wait 24 hrs=> test memory
    • Results: Those who remember have a bigger BOLD response then those who forget.
Card Set
N158 Final