What are the three generic aspects of the nervous system and the three types of neurons associated with each?
- Input, processing, output;
- afferent neurons/sensory neurons,
- efferent neurons/motor neurons.
What is a neuron?
An excitable cell in the nervous system that processes and transmits information by electrochemical signaling.
What is a glial cell?
Non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for the brain's neurons.
What diseases are associated with the myelin sheaths?
Demyelination is the loss of the myelin sheath insulating the nerves and is the hallmark of some neurodegenerative autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis.
What is a synapse?
A tiny gap between the ends of nerve fibers across which nerve impulses pass from one neuron to another; at the synapse, an impulse causes the release of a neurotransmitter, which diffuses across the gap and triggers an electrical impulse in the next neuron