What groups invaded and settled England?
The Angles, Saxons, and Jutes
When England was first being colonized, who fought to be king? What did they do amongst each other?
- Harold (English) [EH]
- Harold (Scandinavian) [SH]
- William of Normandy
- EH's land was invaded by SH in the North. EH defeated SH. But, William attacked in the South and Harold (EH is the only one left now) fought him in the battle of Hastings.
Who won the battle of Hastings? When?
- William of Scandinavia (the conqueror)
What was the outcome of the battle of Hastings?
William won, Harold died, and William became king.
What famous work of art depicts the battle of Hastings?
The Bayeux Tapestry
While he was king, William of Normandy was also the _________________ of Normandy. He was (good/bad). He did what to assert his power in England?
- Bad (he was selfish and disobeyed the king)
- He said: No private wars, no continuous, large tracts of land, and only the king could coin money
Explain Henry II's court system.
He set up the English Common law with a circuit court system. Judges traveled around the country and talked to the grand jury (people in the area) who gave them insight. People were allowed to a trial by a jury of their peers, and trials were decided by precedents. It was a good system that is still largely in use today.
What is church law called?
Why did the king want no courts in church?
He didn't want the church to cherry-pick who they wanted guilty and innocent.
When the Archbishop of Canterbury died, who did Henry II appoint to the position?
His friend Thomas Becket who was the chancellor.
Tell the story of Thomas Becket.
He became priest and bishop in one day when he was appointed as Archbishop of Canterbury. As people in the church were being hauled off by the king, he stood up for them and Henry II was mad. He got drunk one day and sent knights to kill Becket. When they approached him with their weapons, he ran for a while. Eventually, Becket faced his pursuers and said, in essence, "don't harm innocent people." He was considered holy for standing up for his religion, and errybady loved him fo' evuh.
Richard the Lionhearted spent most of his time __________. He did this because _____________. Also, one time he was captured in ___________ for __________.
- out of England
- he was always conquering other land and defending his land in France
How was Richard the Lionhearted killed? Who took his place?
- He was killed by friendly fire
- His brother John Lackland took over
Why was John Lackland a failed ruler?
- He taxed people, but lost wars
- He divorced his wife and then pursued a married french woman
- The pope excommunicated and interdicted him when he taxed the church because they wouldn't recognize his candidate for archbishop.
When did John Lackland sign the Magna Carta? Why is this document important?
- In 1215It is like the start of the English constitution (which they never made)
When Parliament was formed in the late 13th century, who did the king invite? Why did he invite these people? What effect did this have?
- He called lord and commons
- They were important people and he called them because he could tax them
- They eventually started wanting favors in return for their money; they began to be able to make laws rather than just vote on them.