Chapter 6

  1. According to
    uniformitarianism, how does geologic change happen?
    gradually
  2. Which of the following events would be a catastrophe?



    d. deposition
    C. an asteroid hitting the earth
  3. ´╗┐What kind of scientist studies the history of plants and animals?
    a. a paleontologist
    b. a botanist
    c. a geologist
    d. a chemist
    a. a paleontologist
  4. How are rock layers arranged in the geologic column?

    a. Youngest rocks are in the middle.
    b. Youngest rocks are on the bottom.
    c. Oldest rocks are on the bottom.
    d. Oldest rocks are on the top.
    c. Oldest rocks are on the bottom.
  5. How does a geologist know that rock layers are undisturbed?

    a. Rock layers are folded.
    b. Rock layers are horizontal.
    c. Rock layers are tilted.
    d. Rock layers are faulted.
    b. Rock layers are horizontal.
  6. What is a fault?
    a. molten rock that squeezes into existing rock
    b .a break in the Earth’s crust
    c. slanted layers of rock
    d. a bent and buckled layer of rock
    b .a break in the Earth’s crust
  7. What is the most common type of unconformity?
    a. a disconformity
    b. an angular unconformity
    c. a nonconformity
    d. a fault
    a. a disconformity
  8. Which of the following are isotopes?
    a. atoms with the same number of protons and neutrons
    b. atoms with the same number of neutrons
    c. atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
    d. atoms with the same number of electrons
    c. atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
  9. Which two methods of radiometric dating are used for rocks more
    than 10 million years old?

    a. rubidium-strontium and uranium-lead
    b. rubidium-strontium and potassium-argon
    c. rubidium-strontium and carbon-14
    d. rubidium-strontium and carbon-12
    a. rubidium-strontium and uranium-lead
  10. What is amber?
    a. a hard shell
    b. hardened tree sap
    c. an insect’s body
    d. wet, sticky tree sap
    b. hardened tree sap
  11. Which of the following is an example of mineral replacement?
    a. La Brea tar pits
    b. a frozen mammoth
    c. hardened tree sap
    d. petrified wood
    d. petrified wood
  12. Which of the following is an example of a trace fossil?
    a. preserved footprints
    b. mold and cast
    c. hardened tree sap
    d. a frozen mammoth
    a. preserved footprints
  13. Which kind of temperatures will slow down an organism’s decay?
    freezing temperatures
  14. Which era ended with the
    largest mass extinction in Earth’s history?
    Paleozoic
  15. Which era are we in now?
    Cenozoic
  16. What does the rock and fossil record represent?
    geologic time
  17. If a trilobite was buried by ocean sediment, it would leave a cavity, or a(n)
    mold
  18. What process involves the comparison of rock layers with others in a sequence to determine its age?
    relative dating
  19. Which of the following is the largest division of geologic time?
    a. eon
    b. epoch
    c. era
    d. period
    a. eon
  20. Erosion is one of the major causes of the missing rock layers, known as
    a. superposition.
    b. unconformities
    c. the geologic column.
    d. tilting.
    b. unconformities
  21. A fossil used to date surrounding rock layers is called a(n)
    a. index fossil.
    b. mold.
    c. cast.
    d. trace fossil.
    a. index fossil.
  22. To determine the most accurate and precise age of Earth’s oldest rocks, geologists would use
    a. relative dating.
    b. the uranium-lead method.
    c. the carbon-14 method.
    d. index fossils.
    b. the uranium-lead method.
  23. Which of the following is a trace fossil?

    a. a mark left by a dinosaur’s tail
    b. a mosquito trapped in amber
    c. a mummified plant seed
    d. a frozen woolly mammoth
    a. a mark left by a dinosaur’s tail
  24. How many years of the history of Earth do geologists study?
    4.6 billion years
  25. Which of the following processes always occurs at a steady rate?
    a. erosion
    b. decay of organic matter
    c. sediment deposition
    d. radioactive decay
    d. radioactive decay
  26. The phrase “younger over older” could be used to remember the
    principle of
    a. absolute dating.
    b.geologic columns.
    c. unconformities.
    d. superposition.
    d. superposition.
  27. What did marine fossils discovered on a Canadian mountaintop tell scientists?
    a. Marine species once lived on land.
    b. The rocks on the mountaintop were once below the ocean’s surface.
    c. The rocks had probably been moved.
    d. The rocks had probably eroded.
    b. The rocks on the mountaintop were once below the ocean’s surface.
  28. Which of the following do geologists use to date rock layers?
    a. trace fossils
    b. molds
    c. index fossils
    d. casts
    c. index fossils
  29. What is tilting?
    a. an intrusion
    b. a form of erosion
    c. folding of rock layers
    d. slanting of rock layers
    d. slanting of rock layers
  30. Which word best describes the geologic column?
    a. relative
    b. ideal
    c. absolute
    d. complete
    b. ideal
  31. Which era ended with the largest mass extinction in Earth’s history?
    a. Paleozoic
    b. Mesozoic
    c. Cenozoic
    d. Proterozoic
    a. Paleozoic
  32. What do scientists think may have caused dinosaurs to become extinct?
    a. climate change
    b. competition from mammals
    c. disappearance of prey
    d. competition between dinosaurs
    a. climate change
  33. What does a scientist need to know to figure out the absolute age of a rock?
    a. the rate of decay for all elements in the rock
    b. the rate of decay for a radioactive element in the rock
    c. the half-life of a radioactive sample
    d. the rate of decays of the rock’s half-life
    b. the rate of decay for a radioactive element in the rock
  34. What happens during radioactive decay?
    the half-life of a radioactive sample
  35. What can a scientist learn from studying the relationships between fossils?
    how life has changed
  36. What would geologists use to determine the most accurate and precise age of Earth’s oldest rocks?
    the uranium-lead method
  37. Which of these is a trace fossil?

    a. a mark left by a dinosaur’s tail
    b. a mosquito trapped in amber
    c. a mummified plant seed
    d. a frozen woolly mammoth
    a. a mark left by a dinosaur’s tail
  38. How many years of Earth’s history do geologists study?
    4.6 billion years
  39. Which of the following processes always occurs at a constant rate?

    a. erosion
    b. decay of organic matter
    c. sediment deposition
    d. radioactive decay
    d. radioactive decay
  40. phrase “younger over older” could be used to remember which of the following principles?
    a. absolute dating
    b. geologic columns
    c. unconformities
    d. superposition
    d. superposition
  41. What did scientists learn after discovering marine fossils on a Canadian mountain top?
    The rocks on the mountaintop were once below the ocean’s surface.
  42. Climate change caused the extinction of which group of animals?

    a. birds
    b. mammals
    c. dinosaurs
    d. insects
    c. dinosaurs
  43. What process compares one rock layer with others in a sequence?

    a. radioactive decay
    b. radiometric dating
    c. relative dating
    d. absolute dating
    c. relative dating
  44. What is it called when an area is worn down by water, wind, or other elements?
    erosion
  45. Which of the following is NOT a measure of absolute dating?
    a. uranium-lead
    b.strontium-rubidium
    c. carbon-12
    d. potassium-argon
    c. carbon-12
  46. What do scientists know about an undisturbed sequence of rocks?
    Younger rocks are on top of older rocks.
  47. How does the geologic column help geologists?
    a. It helps them find water.
    b. It tells them where to find trace fossils.
    c. It helps them identify rock layers.
    d. It isn’t much help at all.
    c. It helps them identify rock layers.
  48. Where are most fossils preserved?
    a. in ice
    b. in amber
    c. in sedimentary rock
    d. in asphalt
    c. in sedimentary rock
  49. Why is the fossil record incomplete?
    a. Most organisms never became fossils.
    b. Scientists don’t like to work on it.
    c. Most organisms have soft body parts.
    d. There isn’t enough amber.
    a. Most organisms never became fossils.
  50. Which method is most useful in dating plant and animal remains?
    a. uranium-lead
    b. potassium-argon
    c. rubidium-strontium
    d. carbon-14
    d. carbon-14
  51. Which part of an animal is more commonly preserved?
    a. the eyes
    b. the soft parts
    c. the shell or bones
    d. the organs
    c. the shell or bones
  52. Which of the following can scientists NOT interpret by examining fossils?
    a. how Earth’s environment has changed over time
    b. how plants and animals have changed over time
    c. the age of certain layers of rocks
    d. how the pull of gravity has changed
    d. how the pull of gravity has changed
Author
mmbarton
ID
54358
Card Set
Chapter 6
Description
Fossils
Updated