chapter 22: development

  1. the length of a human pregnancy is generally 40 weeks. this is known as the _______ ________.
    gestation period
  2. there are two parts to human development, what are their names?
    embryonic development

    fetal development
  3. ______ is when cells become specialized in structure and function
  4. ______ is when body parts take on a certain shape or form
  5. what are the five classes of higher animals?
    • fish
    • amphibians
    • reptiles
    • birds
    • mammals
  6. what are the four developmental stages
    • cleavage
    • bastula
    • gastrula
    • neurula
  7. which two developmental stages can be described as having cell division without growth?
    cleavage and blastula
  8. a human blastula has an inner cell mass that is described as totipotent. what does that mean
    the mass can develop into a total and complete human being
  9. monozygotic twins are
  10. dizygotic twins are
  11. in the gastrula stage cells push or invaginate into the
  12. the primitive gut is formed during the gastrula stage. what is another name for the primitive gut
  13. another name for the blastopore is
  14. there are three tissue layers called the _____ layers
  15. what are the three germ layers
    endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm
  16. the first system to develop is
    the nervous system
  17. ______ is the epidermis of skin, epithelial lining of oral cavity and rectum; nervous system
  18. _______ is the skeletal, muscular, circulatory, excretory and reproductive systems and the dermis of skin
  19. ________ is the epithelial lining of digestive and respiratory tracts; urinary bladder
  20. what is the order of germ layers from inside ---> out
  21. what does the notochord develop into?
    the vertebral column or backbone
  22. neurulation occurs by _____
  23. what are the three substages of the neurula stage?
    • neural plate stage
    • neural groove stage
    • neural tube stage
  24. how do cells become specialized?
    ooplasmic segregation
  25. what is the first site of blood cell formation
    yolk sac
  26. gas exchange happens here
  27. collects and stores waste (bulk of umbilical cord)
  28. provides nutrients (first site of blood cell formation)
    yolk sac
  29. watery like substance that protects the embryo
  30. the first and second month of human development is known as
    embryonic development
  31. the third thru ninth month of human development is known as
    fetal development
  32. an egg is fertalized in the upper 1/3 of the
  33. implantation in the wall of the _____ begins at the end of the first week
  34. ____ begins to develop in the first week of embryonic development. it aids in the implantation of embryo and forms the fetal portion of the placenta
  35. fetal circulation is different from adult circulation. what is different
    • foramen ovale
    • ductus arteriosus
    • umbilical areteries and vein
    • ductus venosus
  36. pulmonary means
    heart to lungs
  37. systemic means
    heart to body systems
  38. what are the three methods of genetic defect testing before birth
    • amniocentesis
    • chorionic villi sampling
    • egg sampling
  39. what are the three stages of giving birth
    • dialation of cervix
    • infant is born
    • afterbirth (placenta) is expelled
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chapter 22: development
Lecture notes for chapter 22: development