Wildlife Monitoring

  1. What factors influence the type of count you may use?
    • Cost of the counting method
    • Size of area to be counted
    • Species to be counted
    • Habitat
    • Availability/Quality of manpower (NB)
    • Purpose of count
  2. What are the different types of game counts?
    • Direct
    • Midden
    • Track
    • Aerial
    • Estimated
    • Static obs
    • Drive count
    • Strip Drive count
    • Road strip count
    • Record method
    • Ratio method
  3. What is a Direct count?
    • Shows exactly how many of the species you have.
    • Used for intensive management esp. expensive sp.
    • Monitoring growth of population
    • Calculate pressure on environment (NB)
    • Calculate utilization of various areas
  4. What is a Midden count?
    • Record amount of midden in area
    • Mapped to establish territory (GIS)
    • Frequency of use
    • Habits of sp.counted

    • Give an idea of size of territories, ie how many bulls. If midden used more then territory smaller, & vice versa
    • depends on sp. - cannot do on those that don't have a territory ie Buffalo
  5. Describe a Track Count?
    • It is an indirect method of counting.
    • Best to start with a clean slate
    • Must have a good knowledge of tracking
    • Distinguish between old and new tracks
    • Correct identification essential.

    • It is Quantitive v Qualitative
    • ie how many v What have we got.
  6. Briefly explain an Aerial Count ?
    Can use a helicopter.plane, or aerial photo.

    With aerial photo have grid over, and using special equip,note how many in photo.

    • Plane count - 2 marks on window 2 on struts o/s plane, then count those in that area.
    • If a herd use a photo then count later.
  7. What is an Estimated Count?
    • Need repeatability
    • Has to be done over time to get accurate counts
    • Calculate total population on farm
    • Used for determining harvesting quotas
  8. What are the problems with Estimated Counts?
    • Uneven animal distribution on farm
    • Animal habitat
    • Animal habits
  9. What is the Static observation method?
    • It is easy to do.
    • Direct counting method
    • Integrity of observers very important
    • Animal behaviour (day/night activity)
    • Repeatability
    • Point selection must be a factor
  10. What must you do in a Static point obs?
    • Measure total surface of area observed
    • Percentage of observed area of total habitat type
    • Percentage of habitat type in total
  11. What is a Drive Count?
    • Is a very accurate direct counting method.
    • Animals get driven ahead of counters
    • Used for small properties
    • Good line of sight required
    • Done when veld dry & little leaves on trees
    • Walk equal distance (50-100m) apart over width of property
    • All count to the same side
    • Done from 2 sides of dividing line
  12. What are the problems with a Drive count?
    • Can get breaks n the line
    • Wrong animal id
    • Animals may break fences to get away
    • May interfere with herd structure
  13. What is a Strip Drive Count?
    • An indirect method with medium accuracy, similar to a drive count but wider conditions
    • Have clearly marked out strips
    • Centre counts left and right
    • Those on left count left & vice versa
    • Mean visibility calculated
    • Suitable for homogene areas
  14. What are the problems with a Drive Strip count?
    • Thick bush will reduce visibility
    • Animals in large herds
    • Animals occurring in small patches
  15. What is a Road Strip Count?
    • Not very accurate method of counting
    • Have marked out strips of given size
    • Marked out with GPS
    • Strips to cover all habitat types
    • Must be done on the same day
    • Sightings recorded onto map
    • Log habitat transitions ie Savannah, River, Reeds, Open plains areas
  16. What are the problems with Road Strip Counts?
    • Animals are afraid of vehicles esp. if hunted
    • Prejudice due to location of road ie don't cross rivers often
    • Consistency
Card Set
Wildlife Monitoring
Wildlife Monitoring in South Africa