The nervous system produces at least how many different types of neurotransmitters?
at least 30 different types
True or False: All neurons release only one type of neurotransmitter.
False: some neurons release only one type of neurotransmitter, while others produce two or three types
The neurotransmitters Acetylcholine stimulates what, is sythesized where, and is stored in what?
stimulates skeletal muscle contraction
is synthesized in the cytoplasm of the nerve terminals
is stored in vesicles
The neurotransmitters of Monamines are a group of what and are modifications of what?
a group of compounds
are modifications of amino acids
The neurotransmitters of Monamines is synthesized where and stored where?
sythesized in the cytoplasm of the nerve terminals
stored in vesicles
Name some of the neurotransmitters of Monamines (Biogenic Amines)?
The neurotransmitters of Amino Acids are synthesized where and stored where?
sythesized in the cytoplasm of the nerve terminals
stored in vesicles
Name some of the neurotransmitters of Amino Acids?
These are an example of unmodified amino acids, acting as neurotransmitters.
gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA)
The neurotransmitters of Peptides are a what group, which what type of amino acids?
a large group
of short chain amino acids
The neurotransmitters of Peptides are sythesized where and transported how?
sythesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of the neuron cell bodies
transported in vesicles down the axon to the nerve terminal
Name some of the neurotransmitters of Peptides?
When more calcium enters the synaptic knob, what is the result?
the more calcium that enters the synaptic knob, the more neurotransmitters that are released
After a vesicle releases its ____________, it becomes part of the ___________ ___________.
neurotransmitter, cell membrane
What is the function of monamino oxidase after reuptake?
monamino oxidase functions to inactivate epinephrine norepinephrine after reuptake
What does the destruction or removal of neurotransmitters prevent?
it prevents continuous stimulation of the presynaptic neuron
What are neuropeptides?
they are substances that alter a neuron's response to a neurotransmitter or block the release of a neurotransmitter
Enkephalins function to what?
to relieve pain sensations
Endorphins functions to what?
to relieve pain
Substance P functions to what?
to transmit pain impulses into the spinal cord and on to the brain
True or False: Beta Endorphins act longer than and are a much more potent pain reliever than enkephalins.
Define neuronal pools.
neuronal pools are groups of neurons that make synaptic connections with each other and work togeher to perform a common function
What effect might neuronal pools have on other pools or peripheral effectors.
neuronal pools may have excitatory or inhibitory effects on other pools or on peripherel effectors
What is facilitation?
is a condition created in which a neuron is brought closer to threshold
Neuronal pools are completely in what nervous system?
completely in the CNS
convergence allows the nervous system to do what?
to collect, process, and respond to information
True or False: Impulses leaving a neuron of a neuronal pool may exhibit divergence by reaching several other neurons.
True or False: Diverging axons cannot amplify an impulse.
(they can amplify an impulse)
The CNS consists of what?
the brain and spinal cord
What is the largest and most complex part of the nervous system?
What is included in the brain?
two cerebal hemispheres
the brainstem (which attaches the brain to the spinal cord)
The brainstem connects the ______ to the ___________ and allows ___________ communication between them.
brain, spinal cord, two-way
The spinal cord provides two-way communication between what?
between the CNS and the PNS
The brain lies with the _________ ________ fo the skull and the spinal cord occupies the _________ ________.
cranial cavity, vertebral canal
Where are the meninges located and what do they protect?
they are located between the bone and soft tissues of the nervous system
and they protect the brain and spinal cord
The meningies have three layers, what are they? (superfical to deep)
What are the partitions of the dura mater and where are their locations?
Falx cerebelli - seperates the right and left cerebellar hemispheres
Falx cerebi - extends downward into the longitudinal fissure, and seperates the right and left cerebral hemispheres
Tentorium cerebelli - seperates the occipital lobes of the cerebrum from the cerebellum
Dural sinuses are _______ in __________.
channels, dura mater
What are denticulate ligaments?
they are bands of pia mater that attach spinal cord to dura mater
Where is the epidural space and what does it contain?
between the dural sheath and the bony walls
and it contains blood vessels
The ________ ______ is thin, ________ memebrane that lacks _______ ________ and is located between the ______ and _______ ______.
arachnoid mater, weblike, blood vessels, dura, pia maters
True or False: Pia mater is thick and contains few nerves and blood vessels.
(it is very thin and contains many nerves and blood vessels)
What is aka "faithful mother"?
The ventricles are what type of cavities and where are they located?
ventricles are interconnected cavities and are located with the cerebral hemispheres and brain stem
True or False: The ventricles are continuous withe central canal of the spinal cord and are filled with CSF.
What are the largest ventricles and where are they located?
the lateral ventricles are the largest and they are located in cerebral hemispheres
Where is the third ventricle located?
in the midline of the brain beneath the corpus callosum
Where is the fourth ventricle located?
it is located in the brainstem, just anterior to the cerebellum
What is a connection between the third and fourth ventricles?
the cerebral aquaduct
What is a specialized mass of capillaries and functions to secrete cerebrospinal fluid?
the choroids plexus
True or False: CSF is continuously absorbed into the blood.
Arachnoid granulations are tiny, ______________ structures that __________ from the ___________ ________ into the _______ sinuses.
fingerlike, project, subarachnoid space, dural
CSF differes from blood in that it has a greater concentration of __________ and a lesser concentration of __________ and ___________.
sodium, glucose, potassium
What are the functions of CSF?
to help maintain a stable ionic concentration in the CNS and provide a pathway to the blood for wastes
True or False: CSF does not completely surround the brain and spinal cord.
The spinal cord is continuous with the ___________ and extends _________ through the __________ canal.
brain, downward, vertebral
The spinal cord begins where and terminates where?
begins at the level of the foramen magnum and terminates at the first and second lumbar veretebrae (L1/L2) interspace
True or False: Each segment of the spinal cord gives rise to a pair of spinal nerves.
What are the two enlargments of the spinal cord?
cervical enlargement and and the lumbar enlargement
What do the cervical and lumbar enlargements supply nerves to?
the cervical enlargements supplies nerves to the upper limbs, while the lumbar enlargement supplies nerves to the lower limbs
What is the conus medullaris?
it is the tapered end of the spinal cord
What is the filum terminale?
it is a thin cord of connective tissue that anchors the spinal cord to the upper surface of the coccyx
What is the cauda equina?
is is a group of spinal nerves below the conus medullaris
In a cross section of the spinal cord, _________ matter surrounds _________ matter.
Motor neurons are located in which horn of the gray matter?
in the anterior horn
What is a horizontal bar of gray matter in the middle of the spinal cord?
the gray commissure
The _______ canal is a canal running through the center of the gray commissure down the entire lenghth of the _______ _______.
central, spinal cord
What are the three (3) regions of the white matter?
_______ _______ are groups of myelinated nerve fibers in the CNS.
What carries out reflexes?
A reflex arc begins with a _________ at the _________ end of the sensory neuron.
Nerve impulses on the sensory neurons enter the ________ and constitute a _________ of ___________ limb of the reflex.
CNS, sensory, afferent
True or False: The PNS is the processing center.
the CNS is the processing center
What type of neurons connect with motor neurons, whose fibers pass outward from the CNS to effectors.
afferent neurons or interneurons
True or False: Reflexes are automatic, subconscious responses to changes within or outside the body.
What type of reflex is an example of a simple monosynaptic reflex because it uses two neurons?
the knee-jerk reflex (pateller reflex)
How is the knee-jerk reflex inititated?
it is inititated by striking the patellar tendon
With the knee-jerk reflex, when the tendon is struck, the ____________ muscle is pulled, when the muscle is pulled, ___________ receptors are stimulated. These receptors generate a nervous impulse that enters the ______ ______ on an axon; the axon synapses with a _________ neuron. The axon of the ________ neuron synapsis with the ________ muscle and the muscle responds by ___________.
The knee-jerk reflex helps maintain __________.
In the withdrawl reflex, muscles on the afftected side contract and the _________ muscles on the unaffected side are __________.
How does the withdrawl reflex protect?
it protects because it prevents or limits tissue damage when a body part touches something potentially harmful
When the extensor muscles on the unaffeted side (of a withdrawal reflex) contract, they are doing what?
they are helping to support the body weight that has been shifted
Ascending tract conduct what type of impulses where?
ascending tracts conduc sensory impulses to the brain
Descending tracts conduct what type of impulses where?
descending tracts conduct motor impulses away from the brain
(to motor neurons reaching muscles and glands)
True or False: The names that identify nerve tracts often reflect the origin and termination of the tract.
What are the four major ascending tracts of the spinal cord?
The fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus are located where?
in posterior funiculi
The fibers of fasciculus gracilis and fasciculu cuneatus conduct sensory impulses associated with what and from where?
sense of touch
skin, muscles, tendons, joints to the brain
The spinothalamic tracts are located where?
in lateral and anterior funiculi
The __________ spinothalamic tracts conduct impulses form various body regions to the brain and give rise to ___________ of ________ and __________.
The __________ spinothalamic tract's impulses are interpreted as __________ and __________.
Where are the spinocerebellar tracts located?
in the lateral funiculi
Impulses fo the spinocerebellar tract originate where and travel where?
originate in the muscles of the lower limbs
and travel to the cerebellum
What are the three major descending tracts of the spinal cord?
Corticospinal tracts are located where?
located in lateral and anterior funiculi
The corticospinal tracts conduct motor impulses associated with ___________ _________ from the brain to skeletal muscles.
True or False: The pyramid tracts are the corticospinal tracts and the extrapyramidal tracts are all other descending spinal tracts.
Reticulospinal tracts are located where?
in lateral and anterior funiculi
Motor impulses of the reticulospinal tracts control what?
control muscular tone and activity of sweat glands