lung obj

  1. Abnormal new tissue growth characterized by the progressive, uncontrolled multiplication of cells
  2. New and abnormal formation of tissue, such as a tumor or growth; Can be benign or malignant
  3. A tumor that originates in the bronchial mucosa; Term is used interchangeably with lung cancer
    Bronchogenic carcinoma
  4. Cancerous
  5. Non-cancerous
  6. Agents known to produce cancer
  7. A new growth or malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue
  8. Cancer arising from connective tissue such as muscle or bone
  9. Cancer arising from the lymphoid tissues
  10. Cancer of the skin
  11. Neoplasm of the central nervous system
  12. Malignant neoplasm of blood-forming tissues
  13. Movement of body cells from one part of the body or organ system to another
  14. most common FATAL cancer in both men and women in the United States
    lung cancer
  15. NEW cases of lung cancer are reported in the United States annually, greater than
  16. most common cause of lung cancer
    cigarette smoking
  17. 3 causes of lung cancer
    • cigarette smoking
    • genetic predisposition
    • environmental & occupational
  18. 2 types of cancer
    • small cell lung cancer
    • non small cell lung cancer
  19. example of a small cell lung cancer
    small cell or oat cell carcinoma
  20. example of a non small cell lung cancer
    • squamous (epidermoid) cell carcinoma
    • adenocarcinoma aka brochioalveolar cell carcinoma
    • large cell carcinoma - undifferentiated
  21. small cell (oat cell) carcinoma arises from
    kulchitsky (k type) cells found in the bronchial epithelium
  22. small cell (oat cell) carcinoma commonly found near the
    hilar region
  23. small cell (oat cell) carcinoma commonly reffered to as
    oat cell carcinoma
  24. small cell (oat cell) carcinoma has what type of growth rate
    very rapid
  25. small cell (oat cell) carcinoma metastasizes very early to distant tissue such as
    • brain
    • liver
    • bone
  26. small cell (oat cell) carcinoma strongest correlation with
    cigarette smoking
  27. small cell (oat cell) carcinoma worst ____ of all lung cancers
  28. Squamous (Epidermoid) Cell Carcinoma originates from the
    basal cells of the bronchial epithelium and grows through the epithelium before invading the surrounding tissues
  29. Squamous (Epidermoid) Cell Carcinoma commonly located near the
    hilar region, projecting into the large bronchi
  30. Squamous (Epidermoid) Cell Carcinoma has what type of growth rate
    slow tumor growth rate
  31. when does the Squamous (Epidermoid) Cell Carcinoma metastasizes
    late (usually to hilar lymph nodes)
  32. Squamous (Epidermoid) Cell Carcinoma common secondary complications
    • nonproductive cough
    • hemoptysis
    • pneumonia
    • atelectasis
    • cavity formation in 10-20% of cases
  33. Adenocarcinoma arises from the
    mucus glands of the tracheobronchial tree
  34. Adenocarcinoma most commonly found in the
    peripheral regions of the lung parenchyma
  35. Adenocarcinoma most common type of lung cancer in (2)
    women and non smokers
  36. Adenocarcinoma growth rate is
  37. when does Adenocarcinoma metastasizes
  38. Adenocarcinoma common secondary complications
    • pleural effusion
    • cavity formation
  39. bronchioalveolar cell carcinoma is included in
  40. tumors arise from the terminal bronchioles and alveoli is termed as
    bronchioalveolar cell carcinoma aka adenocarcinoma
  41. bronchioalveolar cell carcinoma growth rate is
  42. metastasis of bronchioalveolar is
  43. large cell carcinoma is commonly arises
    peripherally but can also be found centrally, distorting the trachea and large airways
  44. large cell carcinoma growth rate
  45. metastasis of large cell carcinoma
    early and widespread
  46. common secondary complications of large cell carcinoma
    • chest wall pain
    • pleural effusion
    • pneumonia
    • hemoptysis
    • cavity formation
  47. history and physical examination
    • change in cough or sputum
    • hemoptysis
    • wheezing or stridor if tumor is obstructing an airway
    • dyspnea
    • chest pain
    • fever
    • hoarseness
    • facial edema w/ distended veins of the upper chest
    • bone pain
    • mental, emotional, or coordination status changes
  48. nonspecific systemic symptoms often associated w/ metastasis
    • weight loss
    • anorexia
    • nausea
    • vomiting
    • weakness
  49. imaging techniques
    • radiographic imaging
    • chest computed tomography (chest ct)
    • magnetic resonance imaging (mri)
    • positron emission tomography (pet)
  50. PET uses 5-fluoro-deoxy glucose FDG tagged w/ a radionucliide to assess
    metabolic activity
  51. positron emission tomography is based on the
    metabolic function of a tissue rather than its anatomy
  52. lab studies
    • cbc
    • liver function studies
    • abg
    • pft
  53. non-invasive diagnostic testing
    sputum cytology
  54. sputum cytology is most useful for diagnosing which carcinoma
    squamous cell carcinoma
  55. invasive diagnostic procedures
    • flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy
    • transthoracic needle aspiration
    • thoracentesis
    • pleural biopsy
    • mediastinoscopy
    • transesophageal ultrasound guided endoscopic fine needle aspiration
    • thoracoscopy
    • throacotomy
  56. primarily used to describe non small cell lung cancer
  57. staging system used describes
    • cancer cell type
    • size of tumor
    • level of lymph node involvement
    • extent to which the cancer has spread
  58. most common system used is the
    TNM classification
  59. T=
    extent of primary tumor
  60. N=
    lymph node involvement
  61. M=
    extent of metastasis
  62. stage 0=
    least advanced
  63. stage iv=
    most advanced
  64. are roman numerals used to identify the stages as used in small cell lung cancer?
  65. small cell lung cancer is classified in 2 ways
    • limited
    • extensive
  66. cancer is confined to only one lung and to its neighboring lymph nodes
  67. cancer has spread beyond one lung and nearby lymph nodes
  68. treatment is dependent upon (5)
    • pt overall health
    • type of cancer (small vs non small)
    • surgical resectability
    • size of the tumor
    • location of tumor
  69. is surgery usually a option for small cell lung cancer
    no, most are spread outside of the lungs by the time they are detected
  70. use of powerful drugs to destroy cancer cells. destroys healthy cells, leaving the pt very immunocompromised
  71. chemo used to (3)
    • slow the growth of the tumor
    • prevent the tumor from spreading further
    • relieve symptoms
  72. use of x rays to kill the cancer cells
    radiation therapy
  73. surgical resection is the principal form of treatment in which stages
  74. stage 3, pt with enlarged lymph nodes good candidates for surgery?
    no, combo of radiation theraphy and chemo
  75. if lymph nodes appear normal, but are cancerous, what type of treatment option
    • surgery may be
    • radiation n chemo before surgery
  76. if tumor of any size present all over is surgery an option?
    no, radiation therapy and chemo only
  77. treatment types for pt with stage iv
    • chemo
    • comfort/palliative care
  78. 4 treatment RT can do for lung cancer pt
    • o2 therapy
    • bronchopulmonary hygiene
    • hyperinflation therapy
    • aerosolized medication
  79. 4 types of bronchoscopy
    • placement of stents in the airway
    • photodynamic therapy
    • laser therapy
    • brachytherapy
Card Set
lung obj
lung obj