Anatomy 3 Final Exam

  1. Write the complete equation for CO2 in water.
    CO2 + H2O <=> H2CO3 <=> H+ + HCO3-
  2. function of type II alveolar cells?
    produce surfactant to prevent lung collapse
  3. How does the histology change as you move down the bronchioles deeper into the lungs?
    • The types of cells go from Simple columnar epithelium to simple cuboidal epithelium to simple squamous epithelium. There starts to be less cilia, less goblet cell, less cartilage and more smooth
    • muscle.
  4. What will a decreased FEV1 indicate?
    obstructive pulmonary disease
  5. when does diaphragm contract?
    during inhalation
  6. two examples of a restrictive pulmonary disease.
    • paralysis
    • pneumonia
  7. the sound made by air rushing through the large respiratory passageways
    bronchial sounds
  8. After a normal inhalation, Joan normally exhaled into a hand held spirometer and got a reading of 375 ml. Following the exhalation, her instructor told her to keep on exhaling using all of her accessory
    muscles and she was able to exhale an additional 1300 ml. Which lung volume or capacity was the 1300 ml measuring?
    Expiratory Reserve Volume
  9. After a normal inhalation, Joan normally exhaled into a hand held spirometer and got a reading of 375 ml. Following the exhalation, her instructor told her to keep on exhaling using all of her accessory
    muscles and she was able to exhale an additional 1300 ml. Which lung volume or capacity was the 375 ml measuring?
    Expiratory Capacity
  10. What is actually being measured when determining tidal volume?
    amount of air in and out after one cycle of normal quiet breathing
  11. Austin is breathing rapidly and deeply after running 5 blocks. Compared to his volumes at rest, does his vital capacity increase, decrease or remain the same?
    remains the same
  12. what is greater, partial pressure of CO2 in alveoli or expired air?
  13. actual sites of gas exchange within the lungs
  14. partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the venous blood
    less then the tissue interstitial fluid
  15. oxygenated blood brought to lungs via?
    bronchial artery
  16. quiet breathing
    inspiration involving muscular contration and expiration that is passive
  17. respiratory rate times the tidal volume corrected for dead air
    Alveolar ventilation rate
  18. Jake's total lung capacity is 5,000
    mls. His tidal volume is 300 mls, his expiratory reserve volume is
    1,000 mls, and his residual volume is 500 mls. What is the maximum
    volume of air that he has available for any gas exchange?
    4500 mls
  19. Rachelle inhales as deeply as possible and then blows the air out until
    she cannot exhale any more, the amount of air that she expelled
    vital capacity
  20. If the chest wall (including the parietal pleura) is punctured, would the pressure in the pleural cavity
  21. If the chest wall (including the parietal pleura) is punctured, would lung size increase or decrease?
  22. MOST important chemical regulator of respiration
  23. drug that depresses the activity of the pneumotaxic center would result in
    increase Tidal volume
  24. Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen. To get the same
    amount of oxygen to dissolve in plasma as carbon dioxide, you would
    have to
    Increase the partial pressure of oxygen
  25. hyperventilation
    leads to hypocapnia
  26. deficiency of oxygen due to decreased blood flow
    Ischemic hypoxia
  27. Functions of the larynx
    • sound production
    • switching mechanism for air vs food
    • open airway
    • condition air
  28. Maria is singing a song. At a certain point in the song she forces a
    large volume of air out of the glottis and at the same time decreases
    the tension on her vocal cords. The sound that she produces
    high loud pitch
  29. While playing high school football, Collen is tackled so hard he breaks
    a rib and is having a difficult time breathing. Collen is probably
    suffering from
  30. External respiration involves
    Diffusion of gases between the alveoli and the circulating blood
  31. Gas exchange occurs across the respiratory membrane of the alveoli. The respiratory membrane consists of
    • squamous epithelial cells lining alveoli
    • endothelial celsl linging adjacent capillary
    • fused basal lamina lie between alveolar adn endothelial cells
  32. function of the respiratory portion of the respiratory system
    gas exchange
  33. ease with which the lungs stretch in response to changes in pressure
  34. why air moves out of lungs
    volume of the lungs decreases with expiration.
  35. Which
    is true for alveolar ventilation
    • bronchioles
    • dilate in an increase of carbon dioxide.
  36. respiratory system respond to ketoacidosis
    • carbon
    • dioxide increases in the blood, the respiration rate will decrease so carbon
    • dioxide is not leaving the blood quickly enough. This is causing pH levels to decrease and
    • raise the acidity level of blood.
  37. The rate of gas diffusion across the respiratory
    membrane decreases as
    solubility of gas increases.
  38. VRG inhibits
    expiratory neurons for normal breathing
  39. which is greater, percent of O2 of hemoglobin when pH is 7.6 or 7.2?
  40. pulmonary ventilation
    Movement of air into and out of the lungs
  41. function of surfactant secreted by cells in the wall of the alveoli
    lower surface tension of alveolar fluid preventing the collapse of alveoli during expiration
  42. MOST of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as
    bicarbonate ions
  43. A newborn infant is found dead, abandoned by the road. Among the many
    questions that the police would like to have answers to is whether the
    infant was born dead or alive. After an autopsy the medical examiner
    tells them that the infant was dead at birth. How could the medical
    examiner determine this?
    • it was based upon the lungs and the pressure in the lungs. Babies are
    • born witih more pressure in their lungs then atomospheric pressure and
    • when they are born, they take their first breath which causes the lung
    • pressure to decrease. If the baby was born dead then it would not have
    • cried and taken its first breath so the pressure in the lungs would
    • still be greater then the outide pressure of atmosphere.
  44. organs of digestive tract?
    • colon
    • pharynx
    • esophagus
  45. Chief cells secrete
  46. helps reduce colon cancer
    insoluble fiber
  47. intestinal hormone that causes dilation of intestinal capillaries
    vasoactive intestinal peptide
  48. Waves of muscular contractions that propel the contents of the digestive tract from one point to another
  49. digestive process consists of ?
    • absorption
    • secretion
    • ingestion
    • mechanical processign
  50. myenteric plexus
    network of neurons
  51. secretions from the salivary glands
    • Contains lubricating glycoproteins
    • Help control bacterial populations in the mouth
    • Contain bicarbonate ions to buffer acidic foods
    • Contain enzymes for digestion of complex carbohydrates
  52. Secretions from the tongue
    Contain enzymes for digestion of lipids
  53. only voluntary phase of deglutition
    Buccal phase
  54. Digestion refers to
    chemical breakdown of food
  55. organ is responsible for dehydration and compaction of indigestible materials?
    large intestine
  56. Provides sensory and motor innervation to the muscularis
    myenteric plexus
  57. might occur if a person suffers from a severe case of hepatitis that impairs liver function?
    • Fat digestion is difficult
    • By products of hemoglobin breakdown (from red blood cells) accumulate in the blood
    • Plasma proteins decrease in concentration
    • Toxins in the blood increase
  58. which is greater, pH of blood in gastric viens during digestion or after a 24 hr fast?
    large meal digested
  59. drug blocking action of carbonic anhydrase in parietal cells results in?
    a higher pH during gastric digestion
  60. where does protien digestion begin?
  61. gastric phase of the stomach is triggered
    entry of food into the stomach.
  62. when is Pyruvic acid is reduced to lactic acid
    anaerobic conditions
  63. Linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid are examples
    essential fatty acids
  64. substances would produce the most ATP when catabolized?
    18 carbon fatty acid
  65. when is A molecule of glucose is converted into two molecules of pyruvic acid
  66. inside mitochondria, what loses a carbon atom?
    pyruvic acid molecule
  67. process of cellular respiration, each molecule of glucose that is
    metabolized yields enough energy to form ___________ molecules of ATP.
  68. transported into glucose by liver
    fructose and galactose
  69. first choice for eregy source
  70. drug that blocks the action of lipoprotein lipase
    raise blood levels of VLDLs
  71. Inorganic ions released through dissociation of electrolytes
  72. purines
    deaminated and excreted as uric acid
  73. Why is protein catabolism an impractical source of quick energy
    • Threatens homeostasis at cellular and systems levels
    • Creates toxic by-product
    • Requires a great deal of energy
    • Generates ammonia
  74. process of deamination generates
  75. During the absorptive state for someone who is diabetic and not producing insulin
    • Blood glucose levels are high
    • Fatty acids are fed into the TCA cycle as acetyl coA
    • Glycerol from adipose tissue is converted to glucose by the liver
    • Synthesis of storage molecules is decreased
  76. absorptive state
    The liver forms glycogen
  77. For a single glucose molecule, how many CO2 molecules does the TCA cycle generate?
  78. Your best friend meets you for lunch. As she walks in she states "I
    have not eaten since yesterday and I am starving". Is her statement
    correct? Why?
    • she is not starving. her body is using fat reserves in her body to
    • digest and make ATP. She wont actually be starving unless she goes
    • longer without food, and uses up all the reserve in her body.
  79. The layer of the GI tract that contains
    enteroendocrine cells to secrete hormones
  80. muscular tube of digestive system?
  81. lipids absorbed in?
    sm intestine
  82. Enterokinase is made and released by
    sm intestine
  83. The gastroilial reflex
    moves feces into rectum
  84. Free fatty acids are usually bound to
  85. Red blood cells have no mitochondria so they
    form ATP through
    glycolisis in cytoplasm
  86. Lypolysis
    breakdown of lipids
  87. Lipoproteins, containing triglycerides
    manufactured in the liver, are transported to peripheral fat cells and are
    very low density lipoproteins (VLDL’s).
  88. Primary function of TCA (Krebs’s cycle) in
    carbohydrate metabolism
    produce CO2
  89. clinical condition in which the muscle fibers of
    the pyloric sphincter fail to relax trapping food in the stomach
  90. muscle found in the wall of the bladder
    detrusor muscle
  91. kind of tissue lines the inside of the ureter
    transitional epithelium
  92. structure anchors the kidney to the abdominal wall
    renal fascia
  93. specific nephrons are primarily involved in filtering the blood, not concentrating it
    cortical nephrons
  94. very last tube in a nephron?
    distal convoluted tubule
  95. one cause of albuminuria
    kidney trauma
  96. clumps of hard agglutinated cells in the urine
  97. Why is nausea often associated with renal disease or trauma?
    • this is known as referred pain. The sensory pathway to stomach and
    • kidney are same so body thinks pain is associated at stomach when it is
    • really kidney.
  98. first step in urine formation
  99. pyuria
    presence of white blood cells in the urine
  100. Why are red blood cells not normally found in the urine
    too large to be filtered through membrane
  101. specific gravity of 1.04. What should he do to correct the problem
    drink more water
  102. Where does uric acid in the urine come from
  103. vegetarian diet affect your urine pH?
    more alkaline
  104. if glomerular filtration rate is too high
    useful substances are lost
  105. NFP = GBHP – (CHP + BCOP)
    calculate the net filtration
  106. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP):
    Increases glomerular filtration rate
  107. cells of the macula densa are found
    juxtaglomerular apparatus.
  108. damage to renal medulla interferes with?
    collecting duct
  109. Fluid in the Bowman’s capsule is similar to plasma except
    low amt of Plasma protein
  110. which is greater, concentratoin of solute in filtrate at bottom or beginning of loope of henle?
    descending limb bottom
  111. number of nephrons
    constant from birth
  112. when does tubulare reabsorption occur
    water and useful substances reabsorb into blood
  113. urinary system function
    • regulare blood volume and pressure
    • regulate plasma concentration
    • help stablilize pH
    • conserve nutrients
  114. process of filtration is driven by
    Blood hydrostatic pressure
  115. primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule
    Absorption of ions, organic molecules, vitamins, and water
  116. snake bites will cause what abnormality in the urine?
  117. the process for movement of hydrogen ions from
    the blood into the proximal convoluted tubule?
    tubular secretion
  118. nitrites in the urine
    gram negative bacteria
  119. process of moving glucose from filtrate into the
  120. collecting duct is actively involved in what?
    Secretion of hydrogen for pH control.
  121. Promotes sodium retention in the kidneys
  122. renal glomerulus is damaged
    cause blood cells to appear in the urine.
  123. Prolonged sympathetic stimulation to the kidneys
    • maximal dilation of both the afferent and
    • efferent arterioles
  124. electrolyte that carries a negative charge
  125. normal blood pH?
  126. Excessive lactic acid in the blood can lead to
    metabolic acidosis
  127. hormone that is involved in regulation of fluid balance, sodium balance, and potassium balance
  128. cause spontaneous neural firing?
  129. How will your respiratory system compensate for metabolic alkalosis?
    decrease RR and breathing
  130. four buffering systems
    • carbonic acid-bicarbonate
    • hemoglobin
    • amino acid
    • phosphate
  131. in respiratory acidosis. What does a high bicarbinate level indicate
    renal compensation
  132. hypokalemia
    potassium deficiency
  133. blood pH of 7.30. Why does he also have elevated potassium levels
    blood pH is more acidic which stimulates aldosterone causing potassium to increase
  134. function of renin
    increase renal flow and stimulate angiotensin 2
  135. hypernatremia
    increased sodium
  136. Renal compensation indicates that the condition is
  137. phosphate buffering system is found in which cellular compartment?
  138. fastest mechanism for correcting the body's acid-base abnormalities
    buffer system
  139. When bicarbonate ion diffuses out of red blood cells into plasma, it is usually exchanged with which anion?
  140. where Intracellular fluid (ICF) is found
    cells of body
  141. symptoms of a person who has not eaten for a weak
    • ketone bodies produced
    • excrete excess hydrogen ions
    • make new bicarbonatre ions
    • rapid breathing
  142. effect of eating high salt meal?
    temporary increase in blood volume
  143. Uncontrolled Diabetes mellitus can lead to
    metabolic acidosis
  144. amount of potassium secreted by the kidneys is regulated by
  145. assists in buffering changes in pH
    • amino acid
    • hemoglobin
    • carbonic acid/bicarbonate
    • phosphate
  146. principle anion in extracellular fluid
  147. results of holding breath for extended amt of time
    Respiratory acidosis
  148. Drinking plain water after excessive sweating
    water intoxication
  149. In compensating for respiratory alkalosis, the kidneys secrete more
    bicarbonate ions
  150. Because of greatly decreased PO2, traveling to a very high altitude could cause
    respiratory alkalosis
  151. stimulates thirst center in hypothalamus
    • angiotensin 2
    • input from baroreceptors
    • decline in blood volume
  152. cause of metabolic alkalosis
    repeated vomiting.
  153. one condition that might lead to respiratory
  154. cause a decreased anion gap
    diarrhea d/t loss of bases or bicarbonate
  155. Brain natriuretic peptide is a hormone released
    in response to what stimulus?
    excess stretch of heart muscle cells
  156. Renal compensation occurs in response to an
    imbalance in what?
    H+ and bicarbonate.
  157. How can electrolytes control fluid volume?
    • can be altered so that “water will follow salt”
    • and keep electrolytes and fluids balanced in the body.
  158. Angiotensin II stimulates the production of this
    mineral corticoid, which promotes the reabsorption of sodium ions by kidney
  159. ADH lower or raise blood pressure?
    • Increased ADH secretion lowers blood pressure
    • and does not increase it.
  160. bicarbonate weak or strong base/acid?
    weak base
  161. Most of the body in the water is what fluid?
    • Intracellular fluid makes up 2/3 of the total
    • body water
  162. Hyponatremia results from excessive
    too much pure water intake
  163. If the solute concentration in the extracellular fluid
    water moves into cells
  164. effect would a decrease in pH have on the amount
    of extracellular potassium ions?
    There will be an increase in amount of potassium ions.
  165. metabolic acidosis, a decreased pCO2 level will
    tell you that
    chronic with respiratory compensation.
  166. compensating
    for metabolic acidosis, the body increases
    RR increases
  167. chronic emphysema can result in?
    respiratory acidosis
  168. hypoventilation can cause?
    respiratory alkalosis
Card Set
Anatomy 3 Final Exam
Past Exams for Reproductive, Digestive, Urinary and FEAB