Arterial Disease Symptoms
- Deep muscle pain, usually in calf, but may be lower leg or dorsum of foot
- Intermittent claudication, feels like “cramp,” “numbness and tingling,” “feeling of cold”.
- Chronic pain, onset gradual after exertion
- Aggravated by activity and elevation
- Relived by dangling and rest
- Cool pale skin
- Absence of hair
Venous Disease Symptoms
- Calf, lower leg
- Aching, tiredness, feeling of fullness
- Increases at end of day
- Relived by elevation
- Edema, red, warm, swollen leg
- Coarse, thick skin
ABI (ankle-brachial index)
- ANKLE systolic pressure BRACHIAL systolic pressure
- = % ABI
ABI 90% or less indicates PVD
- Firmly occlude both the ulnar and radial arteries of one hand while the person makes a fist several times. This causes the hand to blanch.
- Ask the person to open the hand without hyperextending it; then release pressure on the ulnar artery while maintaining pressure on the radial artery.
- Adequate circulation is suggested by a return to the hand's normal color in approximately 2 to 5 seconds.
- Checks for deep vein thrombosis or phlebitis
- Not definitive
- Bend knee, dorsiflex foot
- pain = positive sign
- White - arteriospasm, deficit supply of blood
- Blue - slow relaxation of spasm allowing slow trickle of blood thru capillaries and increased oxygenation
- Red - return of blood into dilated capillary
In response to cold, vibrations, or stress. Lasts minutes to hours.
Arteriosclerios - Ischemic Ulcer
- Buildup of fatty plaques on intima (atherosclerosis) plus hardening and calcification of arterial wall (arteriosclerosis).
- Ulcers at toes
- Pale ischemic base
- No bleeding
- well-defined edges
- associated with diabetes
Venous (stasis) ulcer
- After acute deep vein thrombosis or chronic incompetent valves in deep veins.
- occur at medial malleolus
- uneven edges
- pulse is present
Deep Vein Thrombophlebitis
- A deep vein is occluded
- dilated, torturous veins
- aching, heaviness in calves
- night leg or foot cramps
- easily fatigued
- drain deoxygenated blood and its waste from tissues and return it back to the heart
- have a larger diameter and can expand as blood flow increases
- lie closer to skin surface than arteries
- supply oxygen and essential nutrients to tissues
- walls are strong, tough, and tense
- contain elastic fibers
deficient supply of oxygenated blood to a tissue caused by obstruction of a vessel