1. NFKB
    NF kappa B; a transcription factor activated via TLR signaling; activates transcription of genes for cytokines & chemokines & co-stimulatory molecules -> inflammatory response
  2. adjuvant
    a pharmacalogical or immunological agent that modifies the action of other agents with few if any direct effects when given alone; assist in stimulation of immune response in vaccines
  3. defensins (alpha vs. beta)
    anti-microbial peptides; arginine-rich; amphipathic; disrupt pathogen cell membrane; alpha produced by neutrophils & Paneth cells; beta produced by epithelial cells
  4. interferons
    alpha and beta = antiviral cytokines; bind to IFN receptors in an autocrine and paracrine manner; directly induce resistance to viral replication; increase expression of ligands for NK cell receptors (which leads to increased phagocytosis of virally infected cells); activate NK cells to kill infected cells
  5. selectins
    a class of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs); bind to sugar residues (& thus considered lectins)
  6. CD59
    in self cells - inhibits formation of MAC by terminal components of complement cascade
  7. TLRs
    Toll-like receptors; 10 different types bind microbial PAMPs; found on the surface of many immune cells as well as some epithelial cells; ligand binding may trigger apoptosis or cytokine release or phagocytosis; may be found at cell surface or in endosomes
  8. macrophage mannose receptor
    calcium-dependent lectin that binds certain sugars (mannose & fucose) found on the surface of many bacteria and some viruses
  9. scavenger receptors
    phagocytic receptors that recognize anionic polymers & acetylated low-density lipoproteins; some recognize structures that are shielded by sialic acid on normal host cells; some bind lipoteichoic acid on Gram-positive cells
  10. neutrophils
    phagocytic leukocytes that are numerous and short-lived; normally present in blood but not tissues; recruited to site of tissue infection
  11. acute-phase proteins
    proteins whose plasma concentrations are affected (either positively or negatively) by inflammation; some are synthesized by hepatocytes to act as opsonins and activate complement
  12. NK cells
    lymphoid-derived cells that are part of the innate immune system; induce programmed cell death in the same manner as cytotoxic T cells; activated after primary macrophage/neutrophil response; have activating and inhibatory receptors; possess NKG3D receptors that bind to MIC ligands (which are produced in host cells only under conditions of stress - such as viral infection); sense abnormal MHC I
  13. Peyer's patch
    orgnized lymphoid nodules found in the lowest portion of the ilium
  14. M cell
    cells found in the Peyer's patch; transmit antigens from the gut lumen to immune cells across the epiethelial barrier; important in stimulating mucosal immunity
  15. TAP
    transporters associated with antigen processing; transport antigen fragments from the cytosol to the ER so that they can bind with MHC I and be presented on the cell membrane
  16. invariant chain
    stabilizes MHC II molecules unti they are released in vesicles where they can bind antigens; CLIP (specific segment of the invariant chain) binds to the peptide-binding groove of MHCII until it is replaced by an antigenic peptide
  17. anaphylotoxins
    positive mediators of inflammation; increae chemoattraction of monocytes & neutrophils & expression of complement proteins; increase monocyte and neutrophil adhesion; include C3a and C5a
Card Set
Innate immunity