At what age the the menstrual cycle usually begin at
10-13, after the peak of adolescent growth spurt
Estrogen stimulates what?
Progesterone prepares the body for what?
- growth cells in the reproductive tract
absence of menses
delayed onset of menarche suggests
under weight problem or endocrine problem
What 2 STI's can be cured but may have damaging effects on the reproductive tract if left untreated?
Chlamydia and Gonorrhea
Ectopic pregnancies are common in pts with
What are some common symptoms of PID
- pain and tenderness in lower abdomen
- right upper abdominal pain
- increased foul smelling vaginal secretions
- fever and chills
- nausea and vomiting
- pain during urination and sex
- **most common in women under 25
Which STI is one of the main causes for cervical cancer?
What are the two most common strains of HPV
6 and 11
True or False
Is there a cure for HPV
There are meds to reduce signs and symptoms, but as of now there is no cure
What 4 factors put the pt at risk for cervical cancer
- early sexual activity
- Immunosuppression (childhood arthritis, childhood diabetes, HIV)
In a patient with Cervical Cancer, what kind of symptoms would you expect
- abnormal vaginal bleeding (like after sex)
- pain in the lower back
- pain while urinating
- pain during sex
- anemia (late symptom)
- weightloss (late symptom)
What diagnostic test screens for Cervical Cancer?
If a pt is found to have cervical cancer, what 2 surgeries could be performed?
- Cryco (freezing technique)
Breast cancer risk is greatest in what population?
What are the risk factors for breast cancer
- multiple relatives with breast or ovarian cancer
- over 50
- early menarche (b4 12) and late menopause (after 55)
- first full term pregnancy after 30
What are the 4 groups of axillary nodes and where are they located?
- Central axillary nodes—high up in the middle of the axilla, over the ribs and serratus anterior muscle. These receive lymph from the other three groups of nodes.
- Pectoral (anterior)—along the lateral edge of the pectoralis major muscle, just inside the anterior axillary fold.
- Subscapular (posterior)—along the lateral edge of the scapula, deep in the posterior axillary fold.
- Lateral—along the humerus, inside the upper arm.
what are the 5 landmarks for locating lumps in the breast?
- lower inner quadrant
- upper inner quadrant
- upper outer quandrant
- lower outter quadrant
- axillary tail of spence
What is the most common section of the breast to get carcinomas
Gynecomastia refers to
enlarged breast tissue in men
In the 80's and 90's the patient's breast tissue is replaced with what
fibrous connective tissue
When palpating the breasts for masses, how many fingers should be used?
the fat pads of 3 fingers
Spokes on a Wheel Pattern
When Palpating, start at the nipple and palpate out to the periphery as if following spokes on a wheel.
Concentric Circles Pattern
When palpating the breast start at the nipple and palpate in concentric circles, increasing out to the periphery.
What are some abnormal findings on a breast exam?
- Sudden increase in size of one breast
- Redness and Heat with inflamation
- Unilateral Dialated veins
- Deviation in nipple; nipple retraction
- dimpling, puckering in breast tissue
- enlarged lymph nodes
When should the pt perform a breast exam and why
One week after menses cuz their breasts are smallest and least congested
When should pts get mammograms?
Beginning at age 40
What are some risk factors for ovarian cancer?
- 55 to 65
- positive family history
- history of breast or colon cancer
- Nulliparity (not having kids)
A pt with ovarian cancer may have what kind of symptoms
- abdominal discomfort
- pelvic heaviness
- loss of appetite
- change in bowel habits
- abnormal vaginal bleeding