What is transformation?
the genetic alteration of a bacterial resulting from the transfer of foreign DNA
What did Griffith show?
unexpected discovery of bacterial transformation -> heredity information can be passed between cells
What did Avery show?
took proteins out of the mix and saw the same results; DNA mus be causing the change!
What did Hershey and Chase show and how did they do it?
- What- DNA is genetic material
- How- labeled protein and DNA
What is Chargaff's rule?
- made key DNA observations that became known as Chargaff's rule
- A-T & C-G
What did Rosalind Franklin do?
worked with x-ray diffraction, revealed that DNA had the shape of a coiled spring or helix
What did Watson and Crick do?
- deduced that DNA was a double helix
- used tinker-toys with Chargaff and Franklin's research
- got famous, didn't give credit to other people
What is DNA and what is its structure?
- a double-stranded nucleic acid that contains the genetic information for cell growth, division, and functionstructure- double helix
What makes up the sides of the DNA "ladder" and how are they bonded?
- alternating phosphate
- Deoxyribose sugar
What makes up the rungs of the DNA "ladder" and how are they bonded?
- nitrogenous base (adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine) A-T & C-G
- hydrogen bonds (makes DNA twist)
Why does A bond with T and G bond with C?
because they fit together perfectly; they are complementary of each other
How are DNA and RNA similar and different?
- DNA- double stranded, has deoxyribose sugar, and contains A T G C
- RNA- single stranded, has ribose sugar, and contains A U (uracil) G C
What does anti-parallel mean?
a term applied to two molecules that are side by side but run in opposite directions
What is DNA replication and where does it occur?
- the process whereby a copy of a DNA molecule is made and thus the genetic information it contains is duplicated
What is Semi-conservative Replication?
when two new DNA molecules are formed, each double helices would have one new strand and one old strand
What did Meselson-Stahl show?
semi-conservative replication is the actual way that DNA replicates
What are leading and lagging strands and why do they occur?
- Leading- is made continuously from one primer
- Lagging- is assembled in segments created from many primers
- DNA polymerase can only build a strand of DNA in one direction
What is helicase?
an enzyme that unwinds the double helix (DNA)
What is DNA Polymerase?
reads along each naked single strand adding the complementary nucleotide
What are Okazaki fragments and what is Ligase?
relatively short fragment of DNA synthesized on the lagging strand during DNA replication
What are SSBPs?
Single Stranded Binding Proteins
What is Primase?
an enzyme that puts down a short piece of RNA termed the primer
What is a mutation?
a permanent, heritable change in the nucleotide sequence in a gene or a chromosome; the process in which such a change occurs in a gene or in a chromosome
What do mutations in Germ-Line Tissues do?
passed to offspring
What do mutations in Somatic Tissues do?
only passed to descendant cells
What are point mutations?
- change in nucleotide sequence of one or a few base pairs
- may be due to copying errors, chemicals, viruses, etc.
What are base substitutions?
- one or more nucleotides changed into different basescan cause amino acid to change or not
What are frame-shift mutations?
- insertion or deletion of one or more nucleotides
- change 'reading frame'
- proteins built incorrectly
What is transposition/translocation?
- transposition: the movement of a piece of dNA around the chromosome (from one gene to another part of the genome), usually through the function of a transposable element
- translocation: two chromosome = no homologus
- part of chromosome is transferred to another chromosome
What are the monomers and polymers of nucleic acids?
- Monomer- nucleotides
- Polymer- DNA or RNA
What are the three types of RNA and what does each do?
- mRNA- codes for the chemical blueprint for a protein (during protein synthesis)
- rRNA- plays a role in transferring information from dNA to the protein-forming system of the cell
- tRNA- attach the correct amino acid to the protein chain that is being synthesized at the ribosome of the cell
What is RNA polymerase and what does it do?
an enzyme that is responsible for making rna from a DNA template
What is transcription ans where does it occur?
the process of transcribing or making a copy of genetic information stored in a DNA strand into acomplementary strand of RNA in the nucleus
What is translation and where does it occur?
decoded to produce the specific sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain in the cytoplasm
What are codons and anticodons?
- codons- set of three adjacent nucleotides
- anticodons- sequence of three adjacent nucleotides located on one end of transfer RNA
What is crossing over, why is it important, and when does it occur?
- two chromosomes pair up and exchange segments of their genetic material
- so not all of your siblings look exactly the same as you
- occurs at the stage when chromatids of homologous chromosomes
What are homologous chromosome, when do they pair (synapse) and when are they separated?
- a chromosome with the same gene sequence as another
- pairs with another chromosome during meiosis
- in anaphase
What are gametes and somatic cells, how are they produced, what is their function, and how many copies do they contain of each chromosome? (haploid vs diploid)
- Gametes- sperm or egg cell, produced in meiosis, 23 chromosomes
- Somatic- body cells, produced in mitosis, 46 chromosomes
Is Interphase part of mitosis? Explain your answer.
No because mitosis is the process in which a diploid cell divides its chromosomes/cytoplasm into two non-diploid cells. Interphase just prepares for the division.