1. anatomy
    the study of structures and relationships with and among these structures
  2. gross anatomy
    anatomy that is visible to the naked eye
  3. histology
    study of tissue structure
  4. cytology
    study of cell structure
  5. physiology
    study of the functioning of structures
  6. tissue
    collection of similar cells that carry out the same funciton
  7. organ
    group of different tissues that work together for a common function
  8. anterior
    towards the front of the body
  9. posterior
    towards the back of the body
  10. superior
    higher or above, uppermost part of structure
  11. inferior
    lower/ below lowermost part of structure
  12. medial
    middle or midline of the body
  13. lateral
    away from the middle
  14. proximal
    closer to a point of attachment
  15. distal
    farther from a point of attachment
  16. sagittal
    • (sattle)
    • runs vertically, divides body front + back
  17. frontal
    • runs vertically
    • divides body front + back
  18. transverse
    horiziontal/ parallel to the grounnd
  19. integumentary
    • protection, regulates temp, prevents water loss + provides vit D
    • skin, hair, nails and sweat glands
  20. skeletal
    • protect, support, body movements, provides blood cells, stores minerals and fat
    • bones, cartilages, ligaments, joints
  21. muscular
    • produces body movements, maintains posture, produces body heat
    • muscles (attached to skeleton by tendons)
  22. nervous
    • detects sensations, control movements, physiological process, intellectual functions
    • brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors
  23. digestive
    • mechanical and chemical process of digestion, absorption of nutrients and elimination of wastes
    • mouth, stomach, intestines, acessory organs
  24. respiratory
    • exchanges O2 + CO2 between blood and air, regulates blood ph
    • lunges, respiratory passages
  25. circulatory
    • cardiovascular= transports nutrients
    • lymphatic=lymphnodes, lymphatic vessels
  26. urinary
    • removes waste from blood and regulates blood ph, water balance
    • kidneys, urinary bladder, ducts that carry urine
  27. endocrine
    • influences metabolism groath, reporduction
    • pituitary glands, secretes hormones, pancreas, thyroid
  28. reproductive
    • produces hormones that influences sexual functions and behaviors, produces and transfers sperm cells, produce oocytes @ site of fertilization
    • ovaries, vagina, mammary glands, testes, penis
  29. simple squamous
    • one layer
    • flat calls
    • little wear and tear
    • forms microscopic capsules in lungs, makes up capillaries, makes up part of kidneys, filtering blood
  30. simple cuboidal
    • one layer
    • thick cells
    • cubeshapes
    • little wear and tear
    • line intestine, stomach, kidneys, secreation, and absorption
  31. simple columnar cilliated
    • one layer
    • tall cells
    • cilia on surface
    • lining the tubes that go to lungs, moves things along
    • provides mucas that captures debris in air
  32. stratified squamous
    • many layers
    • lots of wear and tear
    • bottom cells continually reform
  33. nonkeratinized
    stratified squamous
    • where there is friction
    • mouth or vagina
    • wet or moist
  34. keratinized
    stratified squamous
    • protein
    • waterproof, resistant to friction
    • resist bacterial invasion
    • outer layer of skin
  35. loose (areolar)
    • few cells in fluid like matrix, loosely arranged fibers
    • function= provides strength, flexibility, brings nutrients, removes waste
    • found=skin, surrounding organs, blood vessels
  36. adipose
    • fat tissue
    • females have more
    • contains large drrpolets of fat
    • functions= reserve supply of energy, padding aganist ingury, insulator
    • found=palms of hands, soles of feet, joints
  37. vascular
    • blood
    • fluid matrix/ plasma
    • redblood cells, white blood cells, platlets
  38. fibrous
    • dense white tissue w/ closely packed callagen fibers
    • functions= bond things together, maintain flexibility
    • found= ligaments, tendons
  39. cartilage
    • white, strong, flexible protein
    • lays down outline for skeleton before birth
  40. hyaline
    • clear matrix
    • connects ribs to sternum, end of long bones, and bridge to nose
  41. fibrocartilage
    • tough
    • many fibers
    • shock absorbers
    • found in interveterbral discs
  42. elastic
    • more flexible than hayline
    • found in external ear
  43. bone
    forms frame work for body
  44. osteoblasts
    form/ repair bone
  45. osteclasts
    break down bone to release calcium or repair damages bone
  46. general features of muscle tissue and what is its function
    • composed of cells that have the ability to shorten up
    • function: moves something, allows to move through
  47. skeletal muscle (5)
    description, found, functions. voluntary or involuntary
    • controls movement
    • voluntary
    • long microscopic cells with many nuclei
    • muscle attached to bone
    • striated
  48. smooth muscle (7)
    discription, found, functions voluntary or involuntary
    • not striated
    • involuntary
    • walls of hollow organs
    • move something along
    • spindal shapes cells
    • changes size of blood vessels
    • blood vessels, esophagus, stomach, bladder
  49. cardiac (4)
    • long cells that have branches
    • involuntary
    • continuous rhythmic movement
    • found in heart
  50. what is the function of nervous tissue
    collect + transmit info
  51. what is skin color due and why does it range in color for the races of man?
    • melanin, carotene and hemoglobin
    • range is due to melanin programmed by DNA
  52. hair shaft
    • visible
    • above skin
  53. hair root
    below skin
  54. hair follicle
    tissue that surrounds root
  55. hair bulb
    • divides and push cells up
    • add melanin and kertin
  56. sebaceous glands are usually associated with what?
    oil, hair folicle
  57. what is sebum and what is it composed of
    oil, salt, portein by sebacous glands
  58. what is the function of sebum
    • lubricates hair and skin
    • prevents excessive evaporation
    • inhibits bacterial gorath
  59. what is perspiration composed of and what is its function
    • mostly water
    • some salt protein and sugar
    • responds to heat
  60. what are nails made out of?
    hard keratinized cells of the epidermis
  61. what is found at the very end of long bones
  62. what is another name for bone tissue
    osseous tissue
  63. what is a foramrn
    passage for blood vessels or nerves
  64. what is an articulation
    where two bones meet
  65. skeletal
    • voluntary
    • attached to bone
    • move body parts
  66. cardiac
    • heart
    • striated
    • involuntary
    • pump blood
  67. smooth
    • not striated
    • visceral
    • involuntary
    • push things along
    • causes change in diameter
  68. which types of muscles are voluntary
  69. origin
    end of the muscle that is attached to the immoveable bone
  70. insertion
    attached to moveable bone
  71. flexion
    decreases in the angle between the anterior surfaces of the articulating bones
  72. extension
    bring the body part back after a flexion
  73. hyperextention
    continuation of the extension beyond the normal
  74. abduction
    move body part away from body
  75. adduction
    move toward midline
  76. rotation
    movement of a bone around its own longitudinal axis
  77. circumduction
    movement of a bone in a circle
  78. pronation
    palm of the hand is turned posterior or inferiorly
  79. supination
    palm of hand is turned anterior or superiorly
  80. occipitals
    draws the scaple forward
  81. frontails
    • draws the scaple forward
    • raises eyebrows
  82. orbicularis oculi
    closes eyes
  83. orbicularis oris
    protrudes lips
  84. zygomaticus major
    pulls edges of mouth upward
  85. temporalis
    closes mouth/ jaw
  86. masseter
    elevates mandible
  87. medial pterygoid
    • elevates mandible
    • moves mandible from side to side
  88. lateral pterygoid
    • depresses mandible
    • opens mouth
    • moves mandible side to side
  89. platysma
    • depresses mandible
    • used in extending lower lip
  90. sternocleidomastoid
    • when both contract= draws head forward onto chest
    • contraction of one= draws the head left and right
  91. splenius capitis
    extend head side to side
  92. spinalis muscles
    longissimus muscles
    iliocostalis muscles
    • extension
    • support vetebral column
    • maintains posture
    • moves vetebral column
    • maintain curve
  93. rectus abdominis
    • compresses abdomen
    • flexes vetebral column
  94. external oblique
    • compresses abdomen
    • flexes vetebral column
  95. seratus anterior
    • moves shoulders forward
    • raises ribcage
  96. internal oblique
    • compresses abdomin
    • flexes vetebral column
  97. transverse abdominis
    compresses abdomin
  98. pectoralis major
    adduct or flexes shoulders
  99. trapezius
    • raises shoulder upward
    • draws shoulder back
  100. deltoid
    abduct arm
  101. lastimmius doris
    • adduct arm
    • extended shoulder
  102. biceps brachii
    flexes forearm
  103. triceps brachii
    extends forearm
  104. brachioradialis
    flexes forearm
  105. suminator
    supinates forearm
  106. pronator quadratus
    pronates forearm
  107. pronator teres
    turn down
  108. flexor carpi muscles
    flex wrist
  109. plamaris longus
    flex wrist
  110. flexor digitorum
    flex phalanges
  111. extensor carpi muscles
    extends wrist
  112. extensor digitorum
    extends phalanges
  113. gluteus maximus
    extends thigh
  114. hamstring
    • extends lower leg
    • flexes thigh
  115. quadriceps femoris
    • extends lower leg
    • flexes thigh
  116. gastrocnemius
    • flexes lower leg
    • extends foot
    • calf
  117. soleus
    extends foot
  118. tibialis anterior
    felxes foot
  119. adductor magnus
    • flexion of thigh
    • adduct thigh
  120. adductor longus
    • flex thigh
    • bring leg lack in midline
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