N112 Female

  1. Menstrual cycle usually begin between
    10 and 13 years of age, after the peak of adolescent growth spurt
  2. Development of breast tissue takes an average of
    3 years, although the range may be up to 6 years

    Increased progesterone and estrogen
  3. Estrogen
    stimulates growth cells in the reproductiive tract
  4. Progesterone
    help prepare body from pregnancy and maintain pregnancy
  5. Chlamydia
    most common spread in american women, causes ulcers of the cervecs, culters are expensive and not ordered routinely

    symptoms- menstral irregular
  6. Chlamydia and Gonorrhea can be...
    can be cured but can also damage the reproductive system if left untreated

    some STIs can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can cause infertility, some may even be fatal
  7. Gonorrhea
    - penicellin, affect a newborn, minimal symptoms
  8. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
    Most common symptoms of PID:

    diffuse pain and tenderness in the lower abdomen, Right upper abdominal pain increased foul-smelling vaginal discharge

    fever and chills

    vomiting and nausea

    pain during urination

    pain during sexual intercourse
  9. PID occurs in women....
    Ages under 25 years of age

    Can cause infertility and ectopic pregnancy

    PID is a result of HIV
  10. Human Papilloma Virus
    one of the main causes of cervical cancer

    treatment to reduce the signs and symptoms, there is currently no cure for this virus

    HPV vaccine has recently been developed to prevent HPV infection

    age 9 to 26

    • 3 shots over 6 months
    • type 6 and 11 are most common

    • Trychloric acid for a treatment
    • for it .

  11. Cervical Cancer Risks
    • Early sexual activity
    • HPV
    • Childhood diabetes, arthritus – immunosuppression
  12. Cervical Cancer Symptoms
    Abnormal vaginal bleeding (particularly after sex)

    Pain in the lower back

    Pain while urinating

    Pain during sex

    Weight loss

  13. Cervical Cancer Diagnostic Tests
    Papanicolaou test (PAP test)-Pap test 90% of early change in the cervix


  14. Cervical Cancer Treatment
    Treated- caught in early mid stage

    Cryco surgery- freezing technique or laser surgery- get rid of abnormal tissue
  15. Problems with low birth weight
    baby in hospital for a longer time missing out on mother bonding time
  16. Breast Cancer
    for multiple relatives with breast or ovarian cancer particularly if diagnosed at early age.

    Over age 50

    Early menarche before age 12, late menopause after age 55
  17. nulliparity
    First full term pregnancy after 30 can cause cancer
  18. What are the lymph nodes of the Breast
    Lateral, Central, Subcapular and Pectoral lymph nodes

    Progression in breast cancer can be detected from the lymph nodes
  19. Central axillary nodes
    high up in the middle of the axilla, over the ribs and serratus anterior muscle. These receive lymph from the other three groups of nodes.
  20. Pectoral (anterior)
    along the lateral edge of the pectoralis major muscle, just inside the anterior axillary fold.
  21. Subscapular (posterior)
    along the lateral edge of the scapula, deep in the posterior axillary fold.
  22. Lateral
    along the humerus, inside the upper arm.
  23. Where is the most common site for breast cancer??
    Upper Outer Quadrent 48%
  24. Gynecomastia
    may reappear in the aging male and may be due to testosterone deficiency.
  25. Menopause includes
    1 to 2 years of decline in ovarian function, irregular menses that gradually stop. Ovaries don’t produce progesterone and estrogen.

    Breast glandular tissue atrophy because of decreased estrogen & progesterone

    Breast tissue is replaced with fibrous connective tissue; beginning in the middle years & markedly in 8th & 9th decades of life which turns into decreased breast size & loss of elasticity
  26. How do you Palpate the Breast
    Use fat pads of three fingers fingers and make gentle rotary motion on breast

    Palpate Nipples and Palpate Axillae
  27. What are the Two ways to palpate the Breast??
    • With either pattern, move in a clockwise direction, taking care to examine every
    • square inch of the breast.

    • Spokes-on-a-Wheel Pattern: start at the nipple and palpate out to the periphery as if following
    • spokes on a wheel.

    Concentric-circles Pattern: start at the nipple and palpate in concentric circles, increasing out to the periphery.
  28. When do you start Breast Self-Examination (BSE)
    age 20 on up; monthly, 1 week post-menses
  29. Reduced the risk of Ovarian Cancer
    breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use greater than 5 years
  30. Clinical Manifestations and symptoms of Ovarian Cancer


    ¨Abdominal discomfort

    ¨Pelvic heaviness

    ¨Loss of appetite

    ¨Change in bowel habits

    ¨Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  31. How is Ovarian Cancer usually Diagnosed


    ¨Tumor marker
Card Set
N112 Female
N112 Boobies