BIO Lab Final

  1. 5 Steps of the Scientific Method
    • Observation
    • Question
    • Hypothesis
    • Test
    • Results
  2. 3 components of Cell Theory
    • -The Cell is the basic unit of life
    • -Every living thing is composed of 1 or more cells
    • -Every cell descends from a pre-existing cell (living cells give rise to new cells)
  3. The semi-fluid matrix that suspends all organelles; Assembly and storage of proteins takes place here
  4. Contains all the chromosomes; Message center of the cell
  5. Lipid and protein synthesis in the cell
    Endoplasmic Reticulum
  6. Modifies and ships proteins to other parts of the cell
    Golgi Apparatus
  7. Produces energy by breaking down chemical energy through aerobic respiration
  8. Living membrane that encloses the entire cell
    Plasma Membrane
  9. Ability to maintain a constant internal environment despite the outside environmental conditions
  10. Prokaryotic cell characteristics not held by eukaryotic cells
    • No nuclear membrane or membrane-bound organelles
    • Nucleolus not present
    • Nuclear body is called 'nucleoid'
  11. Eukaryotic cell characteristics not held by prokaryotic cells
    • Membrane-bound organelles
    • Nucleolus present
    • Nuclear body is called 'nucleus'
  12. Organisms that are complete and independent as single cells. Ex. Kingdom Protista
    Single-celled Organisms
  13. Organisms that contain different cells; Organized into tissues and organs. Ex. Kingdoms Fungi, Animalia, and Plantae
    Multi-cellular Organisms
  14. Group of single celled organisms; If seperated, can survive and function as single cells
    Colonial Eukaryotes
  15. Different types of these cells serve different functions; Make up organs and tissues of body
    Multicellular Eukaryotes
  16. Storage tank for plant cells; stores water, protein, salt, carbs, and waste
    Central Vacuole
  17. Traps energy from sunlight and converts it into food and usable energy for the plant; "Powerhouse"
  18. Rigid outer cell wall in plants; Maintains cell shape and protects cell from damage; "Armor"
    Cellulose Membrane
  19. Internal framework of animal cells
  20. Plant cell characteristics not held by animal cells
    • Rigid cells wall made of cellulose (provides structure and support)
    • Contain chloroplasts (autotrophic)
    • Large central vacuole (controls water movement and nutrient transfer)
  21. Animal cell characteristics not held by plant cells
    • No cell wall-only plasma membrane (cytoskeleton provides structure and support)
    • No chloroplasts (heterotrophic)
    • No large central vacuole (have digestive and circulatory system)
  22. Dispersal of molecules from an area of higher to lower concentration
  23. Living cells have membranes that are _____ _____ to solvents.
    differentially permeable
  24. Concentration of salts and sugars in the cell vs in the liquid surrounding the cell
  25. The diffusion of water from an area of higher to lower concentration; Plasma membrane allows it to flow in and out of cell; Helps regulate tonicity-balance the cell
  26. 3 Tonicity States
    • Hypotonic
    • Istotonic
    • Hypertonic
  27. More solutes (salts and sugars) inside the cell than outisde of the cell; Normal state for plants
  28. Concentration of solutes higher outside of the cell than inside
  29. Balance of solutes outside and inside the cell; No movement of water; Normal for animal cells
  30. In plants, causes the cell membrane to seperate from the cellw all due to a hypertonic solution-cell dies; salt water kills plants
  31. ____ can absorb wavelengths from solar radiation.
  32. Process by which plants, some bacterian, and some protistans use external loght energy to produce internal energy.
  33. Energy + 12 H20 + 6 CO2 =
    6 H2O +6 O2 + C6H12O6
  34. What are the reactants in photosynthesis?
    Energy+Water+Carbon Dioxide
  35. What are the products of photosynthesis?
  36. Animals' energy come from...
    external food
  37. Left to right with formula represents _______, while right to left represents ________.
    phtosynthesis; aerobic respiration
  38. What rough percentage of an organisms energy goes towards respiration?
  39. Energy production from oxygen
    Aerobic respiration
  40. What is the byproduct of respiration?
    Carbon Dioxide
  41. Energy production without oxygen.
    Anaerobic respiration
  42. 3 main products of anaerobic respiration
    • Carbon Dioxide
    • Alcohol
    • Lactic Acid
  43. Chloroplast contain ____ that gives plants a green color.
  44. Cellular duplication (2 identical daughter cells)
  45. Sexual reproduction (4 unique daughter cells [gametes])
  46. 3 reasons cells divide
    • Growth (mitosis)
    • Repair (mitosis)
    • Reproduction (meiosis)
  47. 5 steps of mitosis that involve the division of the nucleus
    • Interphase
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  48. Final division step of mitosis where the rest of the cell divides; organelles split up
  49. The packaged DNA
  50. One of the halves that make up the chromosome
  51. The connecting point of the chromatids
  52. Phase where cells functions as designed OR Cell enters into mitosis (growth and repair)
  53. Phase where chromosomes are formed and spindles begin to develop
  54. Phase where nuclear envelope breaks; Centrosomes move to opposite sides of the cell; Chromosomes line up in the middle of cell; Longest phase (20 min)
  55. Phase where sister chromatids seperate; Shortest phase (few minutes)
  56. Phase where cell begins to develop into 2 cells; nuclear envelope starts to develop around chromatids; DNA begins to unwind; Division of nucleus complete
  57. Phase where cytoplasm and everything in it divides
  58. Animal cell division characteristics not held by plant cells
    • Cytokinesis
    • Forms a clevage furrow
    • Microtubules pinch cell into two
  59. Plant cell division characteristics not held by animal cells
    • Form a cell plate
    • Forms along the equator that becomes the cell wall
  60. Image Upload 1
  61. Image Upload 2
  62. Image Upload 3
  63. Image Upload 4
  64. Image Upload 5
  65. Father of modern genetics
    Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)
  66. What is Mendel known for working with?
    Pea plants
  67. What did Gregor Mendel do?
    Traced characteristics of successive generations.
  68. How many alleles per gene?
    2 (mom and dad)
  69. Genetic makeup of an organism; trait that is not seen
  70. Physical expression or observable characteristic of the genotype (what you see, ex. eye color)
  71. Holds the information to pass on traits to offspring
  72. Alternative forms of a gene for each variation of a trait (brown or blue eyes)
  73. Allele expressed even if just one is present
    Dominant allele
  74. Allele expressed only if there are 2 present
    Recessive allele
  75. XX =
  76. XY =
  77. The __ chromosome is linger than the __ chromosome, thus most sex-linked traits are linked to the __ chromosome.
    X; Y; X
  78. Developed the concept of natural selection.
    Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
  79. _____ do NOT evolve. _____ do.
    Organisms; Populations
  80. H.B.D. Kettlewell conducted an experiment on
    dark and peppered moths
Card Set
BIO Lab Final
Biology Lab Final Exam