1. Role of Skeletal System
    • support soft tissues
    • protect delicate structures
    • surace for attachments
    • storage for minerals
    • hematopoeisis
  2. Long Bones
    • upper and lower extremities
    • contribute to height and length
    • ex: humerus, femur
  3. Short Bones
    • wrist, ankle
    • contribute to movement
  4. Flat Bones
    • Relatively Thin
    • contribute to shape (structural contour)
    • ex: ribs, some skull
  5. Irregular Bones
    • all other bones
    • ex: spinal cord, jaw
  6. Ball-and-Socket Joint
    • rounded head of one bone fits into a cuplike cavity in the other
    • flexion-extension
    • abduction-adduction
    • rotation
    • ex: shoulder, hib
  7. Condyloid Joint
    • oval head of one bone fits into a shallow cavity of another bone
    • flexion-extension
    • abduction-adduction
    • ex: wrist joint
  8. Gliding Joint
    • articular surfaces ar flat
    • flexion-extension
    • abduction-adduction
    • ex: carpal bons of wrist, tarsal bones of feet
  9. Hinge Joint
    • spool-like surface of one bone fits into a concave surface of another bone
    • only flexion-extension
    • ex: elbow, knee, ankle
  10. Pivot Joint
    • a ring-like structure that turns on a pivot
    • movement is limited to rotation
    • ex: joints btwn atlas/axis, btwn proximal end of radius/ulna
  11. Saddle Joint
    • bone surfaces are convex on one side and concave on another
    • movement side to side, back and forth
    • ex: joint btwn trapezium/metacarpal of thumb
  12. Abduction
    lateral movement of a body part away from the midline of body
  13. Adduction
    lateral movement of a body part toward the midline of the body
  14. Circumduction
    • movement of the distal part of the limb to trace a complete circle while the proximal end of the bone remains fixed
    • ex: leg oustretched, move in circle
  15. Flexion
    state of being bent
  16. Extension
    state of being in a straight line
  17. Hyperextension
    • state of exaggerate extension
    • often results in an angle greater than 180 degrees
    • ex: cervical spine is hyperextended when head is looking straight up
  18. Dorsiflexion
    Backward bending of the hand or foot
  19. Plantar Flexion
    flexion of the foot
  20. Rotation
    • turning on an axis
    • the turning of a body part on the axis is provided by the joint
    • ex: a thumb is rotated in a circle
  21. Internal Rotation
    • a body part turning on its axis toward the midline of the body
    • ex: turning hips/toes in toward body internally rotates the legs
  22. External Rotation
    • a body part turning on its axis away from the midline of the body
    • ex: leg is rotated externally when it turns outward at the hip and the points point away from the midline
  23. Pronation
    • assumption of the prone position
    • ex: lying on abdomen
    • ex: palm facing downward
  24. Supination
    • assumption of the supine position
    • ex: person lying on the back
    • ex: palm facing upward
  25. Inversion
    • movement of the sole of the foot inward
    • occurs at the ankle
  26. Eversion
    • movement of the sole of the foot outward
    • occurs at the ankle
  27. Role of the Muscular System
    • motion
    • maintainence of posture
    • heat production
  28. Role of the Nervous System
    • Afferent NS: sends info to CNS, neurons conduct impulses to body, CNS processes info to form a response
    • Efferent NS: conveys response from CNS to skeletal system via Somatic Motor System
  29. 7 Variable that Influence Body Alignment and Mobility
    • Developmental
    • Physical Health
    • Mental Health
    • Lifestyle
    • Attitude/Values
    • Fatigue/Stress
    • External Factors (weather, financial, time)
  30. Isotonic Exercise
    • muscle shortening and active movement
    • ex: ADL, active ROM, jogging, walking
  31. Isometric Exercise
    • muscle contraction without shortening
    • no movement or only minimum shortening of muscle fibers
    • ex: quad/gluteal contraction while in seated position
  32. Isokinetic Exercise
    • muscle contraction with resistance
    • ex: rehab exercises, lifting weights
  33. Muscle Tissue
    produces movement by contraction of its cells
  34. Skeletal Muscle
    works with tendons and bones to move the body
  35. Cardiac Muscle
    • forms the bulk of the heart
    • produces the regular contractions that create the heartbeat
  36. Smooth Muscle
    • forms the walls of the hollow organs (stomach/intestines)
    • in the walls of blood vessels and other hollow tubes (ureters) that connect internal organs
  37. Point of Origin vs. Point of Insertion
    • Point of Origin: attachment of a mucle to the more stationary bone
    • Point of Insertion: attachment of a muscle to the more movable bone
  38. Body Mechanics
    • efficient use of the body as a machine and as a means of locomotion
    • principles used to prevent illness, promote health
  39. Orthopedics
    correction or prevention of disorders of body structures used in locomotion
  40. Tonus
    • state of slight contraction
    • usual state of skeletal muscles
  41. Contracture
    • permanent contraction of a muscle
    • result of prolonged bed rest, lack of exercise/joint movement, poor posture
  42. Body Alignment/ Posture
    • alignment of body parts that permits potimal musculoskeletal balance and operation
    • promotes healthy physiological fxning
    • no undue strain on parts of body
  43. Balance
    • center of gravity is close to its base of support
    • line of gravity goes through the base of support
    • object has a wide base of support
  44. Center of Gravity
    • the point at which an object's mass is centered
    • located in the center of the pelvis about midway btwn the umbilicus and symphysis pubis
  45. Postural Reflex:
    Labyrinthe Sense
    • sense of position and movement is provided by the sensory organs in the inner ear
    • stimulated by body movement
    • trasmit these impules to cerebellum
  46. Postural Reflex:
    Proprioreceptor/Kinesthetis Sense
    informs the brain of the location of a limb or body part as a result of joint movements stimulating special nerve endings in muscles, tendons, and fascia
  47. Postural Reflex:
    Visual/Optic Reflex
    visual impressions contribute to posture by alerting the person to spatial relationships with the environment
  48. Postural Reflex:
    Extensor/Stretch Reflex
    when extensor muscles are stretched beyond a certain point, their stimulation causes a reflex contraction that aids a person to reestablish erect posture
  49. Scoliosis
    lateral curvature of the spine
  50. Kypohosis
    increased convexity in the curvature of the thoracic spine
  51. Osteoarthritis
    (Degenerative Joint Disease)
    • noninflammatory, progressive disorder of movable joints, particularly weight-bearing joints
    • deterioration of articular cartilage
    • pain with motion
  52. Sprain vs Strain
    • Sprain: wrenching or twisting of a joint results in a partial tear or rupture to its attachments
    • Strain: less seriousstretching of a muscle
  53. Dislocation
    displacement of a bone form a joint with tearing of ligaments, tendons, and capsules
  54. Fracture
    • break in the continuity of a bone or cartilage
    • cause: traumatic injury or some underlying disease process
    • Healing: realignment, immobilization, restoration of the bones fxn
  55. Cerebral Motor Cortex
    major role of controlling precise, discrete movements
  56. Basal Ganglia
    integrate semivoluntary movements such as walking, swimming, laughing
  57. Cerebellum
    assists cerebral motor cortex and basal ganglia by making body movements smooth and coordinated
  58. Pyramidal Pathways
    • convey voluntary motor impulses form brain through the spinal cord
    • 2 pathways: pyramidal and extrapyramidal
  59. Aerobic Exercise
    sustaine (often rhythmic) muscle movements that increase blood flow, HR, metabolic demand for oxygen over time, promoting CV conditioning
  60. Stretching Exercises
    movements that allow muscles and joints to be stretched gently through their full range of motion, increasing flexibility
  61. Ankylosis
    • consolidation and immobilization of a joint
    • permanently fixed
  62. Atelectasis
    incomplete explansion or collapse of lung tissue
  63. Range of Motion
    complete extent of movement of which a joint is normally capable
  64. Paresis vs. Paralysis
    • Paresis: impaired muscle strength or weakness
    • Paralysis: absense of strength secondary to nervous impairment

    • Hemiparesis: weakness of one half of the body
    • Hemiplegia: paralysis of one half of the body

    • Paraplegia: paralysis of the legs
    • Quadriplegia: paralysis of the arms and legs
Card Set
test 3