Anthro Vocab

  1. Mesolithic
    The Middle Stone Age period between the end of the paleolithic and the start of the neolithic; referred to as Archaic cultures in the Americas.
  2. Archaic
    Term used to refer to Mesolithic cultures in the Americas.
  3. Natufian culture
    A Mesolithic culture living in the lands that are now Israel, Lebanon, and western Syria, between about 10,200 and 12,500 years ago.
  4. microlith
    a small blade of flint or similar stone, which were hafted together in handles or shafts made of wood, bone, or antler to make tools; widespread in the Mesolithic.
  5. Neolithic Revolution
    the profound cultural change beginning about 10,000 years ago and associated with the early domestication of plants and animals and settlement in permanent villages. Sometimes referred to as the Neolithic transition.
  6. Primary innovation
    the creation, invention, or discovery by chance of a completely new idea, method, or device.
  7. secondary innovations
    the deliberate application or modification of an existing idea, method, or device.
  8. domestication
    an evolutionary process whereby humans modify, either intentionally or unintentionally, the genetic makeup of a population of plants or animals, sometimes to the extent that members of the population are unable to survive and/or reproduce without human assistance.
  9. mesoamerica
    the region encompassing central and southern mexico and northern central america
  10. horiculture
    cultivation of crops carried out with simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes.
  11. agriculture
    the cultivation of food plants in soil prepared and maintained for crop production. involves using technologies other than hand tools, such as irrigation, fertilizers, and the wooden or metal plow pulled by harnessed draft animals.
  12. pastoralism
    breeding and managing large herds of domesticated grazing and browsing animals, such as goats, sheep, cattle, horses, llamas, or camels.
  13. civilization
    in anthropology, a type of society marked by the presence of cities, social classes, and the state.
  14. bronze age
    in the old world, the period marked by the production of tools and ornaments of bronze; began about 5,000 years ago in China and Southwest Asia and about 500 years earlier in Southeast Asia.
  15. social stratification
    unequal distribution of sociocultural and material resources based on rationalized ranking of groups.
  16. grave goods
    items such as utensils, figurines, and personal possessions, symbolically placed in the grave for the deceased person's use in the afterlife.
  17. hydraulic theory
    the theory that explains civilization's emergence as the result of the construction of elaborate irrigation systems, the functioning of which required full-time managers whose control blossomed into the first governing body and elite social class.
  18. states
    centralized political system with monopoly of legitimized force
  19. action theory
    the theory that self-serving actions by forceful leaders play a role in civilization's emergence.
  20. religion
    a set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and purpose of life and the universe.
  21. race
    in biology, a subspecies or a population of a species differing geographically, morphologically, or genetically from other populations of the same species; not applicable to people because the division of humans into discrete types does not represent the true nature of human biological variation. in some societies, race is an important social category.
  22. racism
    a doctrine of superiority by which one group justifies the dehumanization of others based on their distinctive physical characteristics.
  23. polymorphic
    describing species with alternative forms (alleles) of particular genes.
  24. polytypic
    describing the expression of genetic variants in different frequencies in different populations of a species.
  25. epicanthic eye fold
    a fold of skin at the inner corner of the eye that covers the true corner of the eye; common in Asiatic populations.
  26. lactose
    a sugar that is the primary constituent of fresh milk
  27. lactase
    an enzyme in the small intestine that enables humans to assimilate lactose.
  28. thrifty genotype
    human genotype that permits efficient storage of fat to draw on in times of food shortage and conservation of glucose and nitrogen.
  29. melanin
    the chemical responsible for dark skin pigmentation that helps protect against damage from ultraviolet radiation
  30. developmental adaptation
    a permanent phenotypic variation derived from interaction between genes and the environment during the period of growth and development
  31. secular trend
    a physical difference among related people from distinct generations that allows anthropologists to make inferences about environmental effects on growth and development
  32. physiological adaptation
    a short-term physiological change in response to a specific environmental stimulus. an immediate short-term response is not very efficient and is gradually replaced by a longer term response.
  33. acclimatization
    long-term physiological adjustments made in order to attain an equilibrium with a specific environmental stimulus.
  34. bergmann's rule
    the tendency for the bodies of mammals living in cold climates to be shorter and rounder than members
  35. allen's rule
    the tendency for the bodies of mammals living in cold climates to have shorter appendages (arms and legs) than members of the same species living in warm clothes.
  36. hunting response
    a cyclic expansion and contraction of the blood vessels of the limbs that balances releasing enough heat to prevent frostbite while maintaining heat in the body core.
  37. medical system
    a patterned set of ideas and practices relating to illness.
  38. illness
    the meanings and elaborations given to a particular physical state
  39. disease
    a specific pathology; a physical or biological abnormality
  40. medical anthropology
    studies human health and disease, health care systems, and biocultural adaptation.
  41. endemic
    the public health term for a disease that is wide spread in a population
  42. prion
    an infectious protein lacking any genetic material but capable of causing the reorganization and destruction of other proteins.
  43. medical pluralism
    the presence of multiple medical systems, each with its own practices and beliefs in a society
  44. structural violence
    physical and/or psychological harm (including repression, environmental destruction, poverty, hunger, illness, and premature death) caused by exploitative and unjust social, political, and economic systems.
  45. health disperity
    a difference in the health status between the wealthy elite and the poor in stratified societies
Card Set
Anthro Vocab
physical anthro