1. define acellular agent
    agents that can not reproduce independantly of living cells nor carry out cell division
  2. T/F: Viruses contain DNA and RNA
    False. Viruses can only contain RNA or DNA not both
  3. Define Viron
    a complete virus particle
  4. a protein coat that encloses viral DNA or RNA
  5. Capsids are composed of subunits called ________
  6. Nucleocapsid
    nucleic acid and capsid
  7. This acellular agent contains RNA only
  8. 3 styles of capsid morphology
    helical, icosahedral, and complex
  9. This acellular agents is an infectious protein
  10. Define bacteriophage
    viruses that exclusively infect bacterial cells
  11. a bacteriophage will transfer DNA by this mechanism
    bacterial transformation
  12. The method of bacterial HGT when uptake of DNA fragments or a plasmid uptake occurs
    Bacterial transduction
  13. This HGT involves F+ using a sex pili to attach to a F- bacterium
    Bacterial conjugation
  14. T/F: A plasmid replicates along with the chromosome
    F: The plasmid replicates independantly
  15. This method of DNA repair uses UVR complexes to scan DNA to identify thymine dimers
    Nucleotide excision repair
  16. This kind of test test's for mutagenicity
    The Ames test
  17. The genes for a sex pilus and plasmid transfer are found where?
    On the plasmid of a F+ bacterium
  18. the worst kind of mutation that codes for non-functional proteins
    frameshift mutation
  19. this mutation substitutes one base into the sequence and doesnt cause a change in amino acid sequence
    silent mutation
  20. this kind of mutation codes for an early "STOP" in aminoacid synthesis
    nonsense mutation
  21. A single base substitution that changes one amino acid overal in the chain, changing the protein
    Missense mutation
  22. a small magnitude of mutations is known as a _______ mutation
  23. T/F: a gene mutation can occur spontaneously without exposure to mutagens
    • true. transition/transversion
    • insertion of mobile elements
  24. a mutation when a purine is replaced by a pyrimidine
    transversion mutation
  25. the source of mutations to form a thymine dimer
    UV radiation
  26. this kind of mutation transforms a mutant typre to a wild-type
    reverse mutation
  27. this type of gene mutation transforms a wild-type to a mutant type
    forward mutation
  28. this kind of mutation occurs when a second mutation counteracts the effect of the original mutation
    suppression mutation
  29. T/F: a gene mutation is never nuetral
    F. A gene mutation may be silent, causeing no change
  30. T/F: a frameshift mutation may involve a insertion or deletion
  31. Lactose operon exhibits _______ regulation
  32. This activates proteins; post-translational regulation
    phosphorylation of proteins
  33. these proteins regulate translation
    antisense RNAs
  34. T/F: antisense RNAs may enhance or inhibit translation
  35. T/F: lactose operon is ON when glucose levels are high and lactose is present. This is and example of __________ regulation
    • F. When glucose levels are high cAMP is low. Yes lactose is present, but glucose digestion is prefered.
    • Global regulation
  36. What is diauxic growth?
    when a preferable carbon (food) source is used over another when both are available. Ex glucose present with lactose--> glucose digested first
  37. Catabolote repression is mediated by?
    CAP and cAMP
  38. T/F: attentuation regulates the lactose operon
    false. Attenuation regulates the trp operon.
  39. If the energy source is organic molecules for a organism, then is it called?
  40. an organism that uses inorganic molecules as an energysource is called?
  41. an organism that uses light for its energy
  42. An organisms that uses organic molecules as a carbon source
  43. an organism that uses CO2 as a carbon source
  44. An organism that uses organic molecules as an electron source
  45. an organism that uses inorganic molecules as an electron source
  46. An aerobic organisim creates ATP through this process _______ ________
    oxidative phosphorylation
  47. T/F: aerobic and anerobic respiration both make ATP via oxidative phosphorylation
  48. T/F: the products of fermentation is pyruvate
    False. Pyruvate is the electron acceptor (glucose split into pyruvate). H2 gas, CO2 gas are products of fermentation
  49. Oxidation of organic chemicals is known as?
  50. Chemolithotrophy:
    oxidation of inorganic molecules
  51. Phototrophy:
    energy obtained directly from sunlight
  52. 2 types of Eukaryotic microbes
    • protists
    • fungi
  53. 3 classes of protists
    • protozoa
    • algae
    • slime + water molds
  54. This substance is only found in the cell walls of fungi
  55. a unicellular fungi
  56. a multicellular fungi
  57. this organelle is responsible for cell division, signal transduction, and cell movement
    plasma membrane : phospholipid bilayer
  58. makes up microfilament composition
  59. organelle containing dicytochromes
    golgi apparatus
  60. An organelle responsible for energy conservation in anaerobic protists
  61. an organism thats uses dead organic material as a carbon source. Type of organism
    saprotroph - fungi
  62. an organism that gets its carboin source from a living organism.
    symbiont (fungi)
  63. yeasts belong in the _____ class of fungi
  64. an example of a zygomycota
    filamentous fungi - multicellular
  65. T/F: a fungi reproduces sexually via mitosis.
    F. A fungi reproduces asexually through mitosis because it is hapliod --> dives via binary fission. Meiosis is sexual reproduction
  66. Unicellular fungi (yeats) produce asexually via?
    budding - mitosis of haploid cells
  67. In yeasts, this type of reproduction process ________is regulated by phermones
    • sexual reproduction
    • spore forming in ascus
  68. when nutrient poor a yeast will replicate by which method?
    Meiosis, produces spores.
  69. 4 stages of infectious disease
    • Incubation
    • Prodromal
    • Illness
    • Convalescent
  70. Define pathogenicity
    the ability of a microbe to cause disease
  71. T/F: an infection is a synonym for disease
    F. An infection is when microbes penetrate host defenses that may lead to disease.
  72. Disease:
    microbes may display pathogenicity; cummulative infections accumulatye and damage cell tissue
  73. When a microbe is eliminated or becomes apart of an organisms natural flora, it falls under this classification
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Final prep