1. Systems and human motivation can explain major nursing concepts.
    ˜Major nursing concepts include person, environment, and health

    ˜Systems theory: Defined as a set of interrelated parts, in which each part is necessary to the whole (von Bertalanffy, 1936)

    • ˜Component parts to a system
    • include:
    • *Input




  2. Nursing views “persons” as unique open systems.
    ˜Person is defined as each individual man, woman, or child

    ˜Each individual person functions as an open system with numerous subsystems
  3. Open system
    Promotes exchange of matter, energy, and information with other systems and the environment
  4. Closed system
    Does not interact with other systems or the environment
  5. Homeostasis
    Dynamic balance within and between systems
  6. Maslow organized human needs
    into a
    five-level hierarchy.
  7. Level 1
    ˜Those needs that ensure physiological survival (Basic Physiological Needs)

    Oxygen, rest, activity, shelter, and sexual expression
  8. Level 2
    Safety and security needs

    Include physical and psychological needs
  9. Level 3
    Needs for love and belonging

    Social and intimate relationships
  10. Level 4
    ˜Self-esteem needs

    Need for self-worth, self-respect, and self-reliance
  11. Level 5

    Realization of one’s maximum or optimal potential
  12. Elements include:
    • All circumstances, influences, and conditions that surround and affect individuals, families, and
    • groups
  13. Family systems
    ˜The most direct environmental influence on a person and includes nuclear and extended families

    ˜Cultural systems: Consists of attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of social and ethnic groups that are perpetuated through generations
  14. Social systems
    : Groups of families, neighborhoods, schools, churches, professional associations, civic groups, and recreational groups, poverty
  15. Community, national, and world systems
    Larger systems in which people live
  16. Parsons (1959)
    Health is “the state of optimum capacity of an individual for the effective performance of roles and tasks.
  17. World Health Organization (WHO, 1947):
    : Health is “a state of complete physical mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”
  18. Health is a continuum vs. an absolute state.
    Health varies from day to day.

    Illness is not an absolute state; it also can vary from day to day.
  19. Holistic health
    Defined as a focus on the interrelationship of all the parts that make up a whole person.
  20. Health practices include:
    *Nutritional habits

    *Type and amount of exercise

    *Types and amounts of rest

    *How persons cope with stress

    *Quality of interpersonal relationships

    *Expression of spirituality

    *Other lifestyle factors
  21. ˜Health Belief Model (Rosenstock, 1966, 1990) has three components.
    • *Evaluation of one’s vulnerability to, and seriousness of,
    • a condition

    *Individuals/groups perception of how effective the health behavior might be

    *The presence of a trigger event that precipitates the health maintenance behavior
  22. Health behaviors include
    ˜Those choices and habitual actions that promote or diminish health, such as

    *Eating habits, frequency of exercise, use of tobacco products and alcohol, sexual practices, adequacy of rest and sleep
  23. Holistic Nursing Care nourishes the whole person


  24. ˜Nursing care functions as an open system that
    ØInteracts with,

    ØInfluences, and

    ØIs influenced by forces that are internal and external to a patient.
  25. Nursing focuses on optimally assisting people to
    ØManage health

    ØAvoid or minimize disease and disability

    ØRestore wellness or

    ØAchieve a peaceful death
  26. The nurse’s ability to facilitate health for the patient involves
    ØCollaboration with patients and families

    ØProvision of care regardless of individual differences

    ØSupport for the value, dignity, and uniqueness of each person

    ØConsideration and inclusion of patients’ cultural and belief systems
  27. Belief
    Represents the intellectual acceptance of something as true or correct. Also can be described as a conviction
  28. Belief system
    Organized beliefs that serve as a guide, or roadmap, for thinking and decision-making
  29. Values
    ˜Defined as freely chosen principles, ideals, or standards held by an individual or group that give meaning and direction to life.

    ˜A value is an abstract representation of what is right, worthwhile, or desirable.

    ˜Most observable human behaviors are manifestations or consequences of human values.
  30. Values influence behavior; people with clear values tend to have, in their daily lives
    *Effective direction


    *Decision-making skills
  31. Value-issues that are challenging for nurses include:

    ØAdvance Directives

    ØRight to Die

    ØRight to Refuse Treatment

    ØAssisted Death

    ØAlternative Lifestyles
  32. Epistemology
    ˜Study of the theory of knowledge itself .

    *“What can be known?”
  33. Logic
    Study of proper and improper methods of reasoning.

    Ø “What should our thinking methods be in order to reach true conclusions?”
  34. Aesthetics
    Study of beauty and the reasoning behind judgments about beauty.

    *“Why do we find things beautiful?”
  35. Ethics:
    Study of standards of conduct.

    *“What is the nature of good and evil?”
  36. Politics
    Study of the regulation and control of people as they live in society.

    “What makes good governments?”
  37. Metaphysics:
    ˜Study of the ultimate nature of existence, reality, human experience, and the universe.

    *“What is the meaning of life?”
  38. Philosophies of nursing shape and guide nursing practice
    ˜Philosophies of nursing are statements that are used as bases for thinking and acting. They are based on:

    *Beliefs about nursing

    *Expressions of values

    ˜The nursing profession combines two sources of nursing philosophy:

    *Individual philosophies: Developed by each nurse

    *Collective philosophies: Developed by schools of nursing, hospitals, medical systems, and nursing organizations
  39. ˜Individual philosophies are formed by each nurse as she/he accumulates practice experience in the profession
    • ØThey are principles that underlie your thinking and
    • conduct.

    • ØThey are the basis of your day-to-day professional
    • behavior.
  40. Philosophies of nursing are built on a foundation of understanding and beliefs about:



    ØThe Nursing Profession

    • ˜As nurses mature
    • professionally, their own philosophies change.
Card Set
world of healthcare