1. refers to the length of time calculated from the LMP to the point when the pregnancy is being assesed
    gestations age or mentrual age
  2. diameter of the normal yold sac should never excede
  3. which fetal body organ is most severely affected by IUGR
  4. increased vascular resistance to the fetus is reflected by:
    an increase in S/D rate
  5. what is the physiologic phenomenon involving the central nervous system processing of tissue damage
  6. what would not be considered a medical issue
    family traditions
  7. a condition that shows the fetal head elongated in the trasverse diameter and shortened in the anteroposterior
  8. the placenta of the macrosomic fetus can become
    significantly larger
  9. has an increased incidence of morbidity and mortality as the result of head and shoulder injuries
    macrosomic fetus
  10. interface between the decidua capsularis and the echogenic, highly vascular endometrium
    double decidual sac sign
  11. ______ incorporates all fetal growth parameters
    estimated fetal weight
  12. in early pregnancy, the amniotic fluid is produced by
  13. which principle requires the sonographer to acquire knowledge
  14. macrosomia
    a birthweight above the 90 percentile
  15. embryonic heart begins to beat at
    35 days
  16. a normal AFI should range
    between 5 to 222 cm
  17. measurement that includes both fetal orbits at the same time to predict gestational age
    binocular distance (BD)
  18. the sonographer providing a detailed explanation of the exam would be:
    respecting the patient's autonomy
  19. when does the fusion of the corionic amnion occur
    16 to 17 weeks
  20. how do you measure the femur
  21. the structure that carries oxygenated blood from the umbilical vein to the IVC
    ductus venosus
  22. because of the low density of the brain tissue, it may appear
  23. formula for calculating a macrosomic index
    CD - BPD
  24. what three vessels are found in the umbilical cord
    2 arteries , 1 vein
  25. what shunts blood away from the lungs
    ductus arteriosis
  26. definite cardiac activity should be seen when the mean gestational sac diameter excedes
  27. the cisterna magna size is measured from ___ to ___
    vernus to occipital bone
  28. size of the normal lateral ventrical
  29. the CRL measurement can be used up to ___ wks
  30. the anechoic center of a 5 -6 wk gestational sac represents
    corionic cavity
  31. asymmetric IUGR is caused by
    placental insufficiency
  32. biophysical evaluation includes all except
    muscle tone
  33. fetal intersts in sonography are understood exclusively in terms of
  34. dilation of the entire ventricullar system including the 4th ventrical is associated with:
    spinal defects
  35. an S/D ratio of the umbilical artery can be used to evaluate fetal well-being
    • after 30
    • wks
  36. S/D ratio cannot be measured when
    diastolic flow is absent
  37. symmetric IUGR is usually the result of:
    first trimester insult
  38. asymmetric IUGR is usually caused by
    placental insufficiency
  39. BPD is the measurement of the fetal head at the level of the
    thalamus and cavum septum pellucidum
  40. the most accurate measurement for determining gestational age is
    crown rump length
  41. frontal bones of the cranium that collapse forward describe
    lemon sign
  42. absence of one or both eyes is called
  43. with endovaginal sonography normal, cardiac activity should be demonstrated when the crl exceeds
  44. the method whereby the fetus is categorized into the small, average, or large growth percentiles is called
    groth adjusted sonar age
  45. all long bones should be measured if the difference between the femur length and all other biometric parameters is
    2 wks or greater
  46. with endovaginal sonography, the earliest appearance of a normal intrauterine gestational sac should be seen with a serum beta hcg above
  47. linear acceleration of the embryonic heart rate correlates well with gestational age up to
    9 wks
  48. measurement of the biparietal diameter is taken from the
    outer edge to inner edge
  49. total number of pregnancies is called
  50. widest transverse diameter of the skull: proper level to measure the biparietal diamter is
    midline echo conplex
  51. the cranial bones ossify by
    12 wks
  52. cerebrospinal fluid tranvels from the lateral ventricles to the 3rd ventricle via the
    foramen of Monro
  53. the cavum septum pellucidi is observed in front of the
  54. fetal anatomy may be assessed accurately after
    18 medntrual weeks
  55. especially in the 3rd trimester, a fetus in the breech position may demonstrate a cranium shape of
  56. beyond 20 wks of gestation , a renal pelvis is considered abnormal when measuring greater than
  57. visualization of the distal femoral epiphysis signifies a gestational age beyond
    333-35 wks
  58. the normal lateral ventricle measures less than
  59. nuchal skin fold thickness of 5mm or less is normal up to
    20 wks
  60. the cavity in which the fetus exists is called the
    amniotic cavity
  61. the first site of formation of red blood cells that will nourish the embryo is the
    primary yolk sac
  62. the beta hcg levels plateau and subsequently decline, whereas the gestational sac continues to grow after
    8 wks
  63. to calculate the mean sac diameter of a gestational sac, the following formula should be used
    length + width + height/3
  64. in the first trimester, herniated bowel will return within the abdominal cavity by the
    12th wk
  65. the diameter of the normal yolk sac should never exceed
  66. a sonogram of a 10 sk gestation demonstrates a cystic area within the posterior cranium. this most likely represents
    normal rhombencephalon
  67. after fertilization of the ovum, the corpus luteum begins to secrete
    progesterone with some estrogen
  68. the blastocyst typically enters the uterus
    4-5 days after fertilization
  69. implantation of the blastocyst into the endometrium occurs at
    7-9 days after ovulation
  70. the villi on the myometrial side of the conceptus is known as the
    decidua basalis
  71. placentaql implantation encroaching upon the lower uterine segment is termed
    placenta previa
  72. in the 2ns trimester the normal cervical length measures
    3 to 4 cm
  73. on transabdominal imaging, an overdistended bladder may give a false impression of
    placenta previa
  74. the embryo is a developing individual from implantation to the end of
    10th gestational wk
  75. approximately ___ of all pregnant women in the US are examined wit sonography
  76. diagnostic ultrasound has been in use since the late
  77. matters that concern right and wrong conduct are called
  78. refers to a persons capacity to formulate, express, and carry out value-based preferences
  79. the duty of a health care professional to protect the privacy of a patient information
  80. western medicine uses this principle to know what is in the clinical interest of the patient
    primum non-nocere
  81. the goal of seeking greater balance of clinical goods over clinical harms
  82. psychological phenomenon involving blocked intentions, plans, and projects
  83. refers to honesty
  84. describes the kind of person we should become and the virtues we should cultivate in doing so
  85. the discipline that seeks to articulate clear and practical guidelines for conduct and character
  86. emphasizes individual rights and autonomy
    the Nuremberg code
  87. adherence to moral and ethical principles is called
  88. which principle requires the sonographer to obtain appropriate education and clinical skills to ensure competence of each examination
  89. which principle encourages sonographers to go beyond the minimum standard of protocol and seek additional pertinent images as needed
  90. truthfulness with respect to abilities and limitations is an example of
  91. ethical principle that determines the timing of a routine sonographic examination is
    autonomy and justice
  92. ____ is served when protocols are standardized
  93. right of self-determination describes
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