Sociology Final

  1. Functions of Schooling
    1. Socialization – teaches cultural norms and values

    2. Social integration – molding diverse population into one society

    3. Cultural innovation – opportunity for academic research

    4. Social placement- reinforces meritocracy (social mobility by merit )

    5.Latent functions

    a.Providing child care for working parents

    b.Occupies students who would otherwise compete for limited opportunities in the job market

    c.Opportunity for social networks (career resource, marriage )
  2. School and Social interactiona.
    Self – fulfilling prophecy – describes how self-image can have important consequences for how students perform in school
  3. School and social inequality
    social control – a way of controlling people, reinforcing acceptance of the status quo

    standardized testing – biased based on class, race or ethnicity – will always exist to some extent

    1. reflects our society's dominant culture, minority students placed at a disadvantageb. School tracking – assigning students to different educational program

    Public schools vs. private schooling (inequality in schooling)
  4. Problems in Schools
    1. Violence – schools do not create violence, violence spills into the schools from the surrounding society

    2. Student passivitya.

    • A. Bureaucracy
    • Rigid uniformity
    • Numerical ratings
    • Rigid expectations
    • Specialization
    • Little individual responsibility

    • 3. Dropout ratea.
    • Dropping out – quitting school before earning a high school diploma

    4. Declining academic standards

    Functional illiteracy – a lack of reading and writing skills needed for everyday living

    Grade inflation- the awarding of ever- higher grades for average work
  5. Current Issues in Eduction
    1. School choice – seeks to make schools more accountable to the public

    Magnet schools

    Schooling for profit

    Charter schools

    2. Home schooling – advocates the poor performance of public schools

    3. Schooling people with disabilitiesa.

    Mainstreaming – integrating students with disabilities or special needs into overall education program

    4. Adult Education

    5. Teacher Shortage
  6. Population, Urbanization, and Environment
    Demography – the study of population (size composition and distribution of a society's population)

    Composition – gender, social class, race, age of population

    Distribution – where are they located (living)

    Goal- anticipate future needs and trends
  7. Demographic variables
    1. Fertility – the incidence of childbearing in a country's populationa.

    Crude birth rate, the number of live births in a given year for every 1,000 people in a population

    2. Mortality – the number of deaths in a given year for every 1,000 people in a population

    Crude death rate- number of deaths in a given year for every 1,000 people in a population

    Infant mortality rate – the number of death among infants under one year of age for each 1,000 live births in a given year

    Life expectancy – the average span of a country's population

    3. Migration – the movement of people into and out of a specified territory

    In-migration rate movement into a territory calculated as the number of people entering an area for every 1,000 people in a population

    Out-migration rate movement out of a territory calcuated as the number of people leaving an area for every 1,000 people in a population

    4. Population growth – the size of a society's populationa.

    To calculate population growth, demographers subtract the crude death rate from the crude birth rate

    5. Population composition- the makeup of a society's population at a given point in time

    Sex ratio- the number of males for every 100 females in a nation's population

    Age-sex pyramid- a graphic representation of the age and sex of the population
Card Set
Sociology Final