Psych Final

  1. What type of things cause more stress, major stressful events or daily hassles?
    daily hassles
  2. Why do minor stressors tend to be more related to mental health than major stressful events?
    b/c they tend to add up and they tend to last
  3. What does stress lies in the eye of the beholder mean?
    one event may be stressful to one person and not another
  4. What are the 3 types of conflict?
    • approach-approach
    • avoidance-avoidance
    • approach-avoidance
  5. What is approach-approach?
    • least stressful
    • both results are positive
  6. What is avoidance-avoidance?
    • most stressful
    • both results are negative
  7. What is approach-avoidance?
    1 choice and 2 aspects (either pos or neg)
  8. The bigger the change, the more effort it requires to adjust. Is is more stressful or less stressful?
    more stressful
  9. Pressure involves ________ or ________ that one behave in a certain way.
    expectations or demands
  10. When people are under stress, they often react ________.
  11. What does the U-hypothesis mean?
    arousal causes stress
  12. What is the general adaption syndrome?
    model of body's stress response in 3 stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
  13. Explain giving up:
    when confronted with stress you just give up & withdraw
  14. What is learned helplessness?
    unavoidable events
  15. Explain striking out at others:
    person under stress lets out frustration/anger onto others
  16. Explain indulging oneself:
    lots of stress may cause excessive behavior like shopping, smoking, eating, drinking
  17. Explain defensive coping:
    unconscious behavior, unpleasant emotions like anxiety & guilt
  18. Explain constructive coping:
    • 1.confronting problem
    • 2.resources
    • 3. learning to reorganize
    • 4.making an effort
  19. What does a Type A personality include?
    competitive, impatient, & anger
  20. Type A persons are more or less likely to be prone to coronary heart disorder?
  21. Type B persons are...
    more relaxed, layed back, 1 thing at a time
  22. Mental stress causes
    heart disease
  23. Your immune system is _______ under stress.
  24. What are 2 key variables that help reduce the negative impact of stress?
    • social support
    • optimism
  25. Smoking _______ the likelihood of developing a surprisingly large range of diseases.
  26. Overeating has a _______ effect on a persons health.
  27. Lack of exercise is linked to _______ _______.
    poor health
  28. HIV is transmitted through person to person contact involving the exchange of ______, ______, & ______.
    bodily fluids, semen, & blood
  29. People high in anxiety and low in self esteem tend to report more or less symptoms of illness than others?
  30. Who was Albert Ellis?
    cognitive therapist who developed the Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET)
  31. What is the ABC model?
    A Activating event -> B Belief system -> C Consequence
  32. How does the medical model explain abnormal behavior?
    it assumes abnormal behavior is like other forms of illness,
  33. What are the 2 criticisms of teh medical model?
    • use of the word "sick"
    • derogatory labels
  34. What are the 3 criteria of abnormal behavior?
    • deviance
    • maladaptive behavior
    • personal/subjective distress
  35. What is deviance?
    • out of the ordinary
    • moving away from the norm
  36. What is maladaptive behavior?
    • causes problems w/ daily things
    • agoraphobia etc
  37. What is personal/subjective distress?
    • psychological disorder
    • depression
  38. Do different cultures have the same criteria of abnormal behavior?
    No, what is normal in 1 culture may be abnormal in another culture
  39. Is there a sharp boundry existing between normal & abnormal behavior?
  40. What is used for pyschologists and psychiatrists to diagnose psychological disorders?
  41. DSM is said to be
  42. Explain: Anxiety disorders: generalized anxiety disorder
    • chronic, high level of anxiety not tied to a threat
    • free floating anxiety
  43. Explain: Anxiety disorders: Phobis disorder
    persistent, irrational fear of an object or situation
  44. Explain: Anxiety disorders: panic disorder & agoraphobia
    recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety unexpectedly
  45. Explain: Anxiety disorders: OCD
    persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts, rituals...washing hands
  46. Explain: Anxiety Disorders: PSD
    psychological disturbance after a traumatic event: rape, accident
  47. What are psychosomatic diseases?
    • genuine physical ailments
    • emotional distress
  48. What are somatoform disorders?
    physical ailments with No authentic organic basis
  49. Explain: Somatoform disorders: somatization disorder
    history of diverse physical complaints that appear to be psychological in origin
  50. Explain: Somatoform disorders: conversion disorder
    • significant loss of physical function
    • usually in a single organ, hearing
  51. Explain: somatoform disorders: hypochondriasis
    constant worry about developing physical illness
  52. Explain: Dissociative disorders: dissociative amnesia & fugue
    • DS: sudden loss fo memory for important personal info
    • DF: when people lose their memory for their whole life including personal identity
  53. Explain: Dissociative disorders: dissociative identity disorder
    • multiple personality disorder
    • 1 person has 2 or more very different personalities
  54. Explain: mood disorders: unipolar
    experience depression only
  55. Explain: mood disorders: bipolar
    experience depression and mania
  56. What happens in major depressive disorders?
    people show persistent feelings of sadness and despair, lose appetite, can't sleep, and lose interest in activities
  57. What happens in a manic episode?
    person's mood becomes elevated to the point of euphoria. self esteem sky rockets
  58. Explain Schizophrenic disorders
    • split mind
    • irrational thought (delusions), hallucinations, disturbed emotion
  59. How many types of treatments are there?
    few hundred different approaches
  60. What is insight therapy?
    talk therapy
  61. What is behavior thereapy?
    dont do much talking, focus on behavior to change the unwanted behavior
  62. What is biomedical therapy?
  63. Who seeks therapy?
    about 15% of population
  64. What the difference between clinical psychologist & counseling psychologist?
    • CliPsy- treatment of more serious disorders
    • CouPsy- deal with everyday adjustments (marriage, stress, career)
    • only give insight treatment
  65. What are Pyschiatrists?
    • medical drs. specialize in diagnosis & treatment of psychological disorders
    • can employ both biomedical and insight treatments
  66. Explain: insight therapies: psychoanalysis
    developed by Sigmund Freud, treats by discovering teh childhood conflict that led to the behavior
  67. Explain: insight therapies: client-centered therapy
    providing a supportive emotional climate for the client
  68. Explain: insight therapies: cognitive therapy
    detecting clients negative thinking and changing them
  69. Explain: insight therapies: group therapy
    group members provide support and acceptance
  70. Explain: behavior therapies: systematic desensitization
  71. Explain: behavior disorders: aversion therapy
    pairing a want with undesirable response
  72. Explain: biomedical therapies: antianxiety drugs
    relieve tension, nervousness
  73. Explain: biomedical therapies: antipsyochotic drugs
    reduces psychotic symptoms, mental confusion, hallucinations
  74. Explain: biomedical therapies: antidepressant drugs
    gradually elevate mood
  75. Explain: biomedical therapies: lithium
    used to control mood swings in people with bipolar disorders
  76. Explain: biomedical therapies: electroconvulsive therapy
    delivers electric current to brain, causing cortical seizure then convulsions
  77. What is an eclectic therapist?
    involves using ideas and techniques from a variety of therapeutic approaches
  78. What does the community mental health movement emphasize?
    • local, community based care
    • reduced dependence on hospitalization
    • prevention of psychological disorders
  79. What does deinstitutionalization mean?
    whenever possible the mentally ill should be treated at community based facilities that emphasize outpatient care
Card Set
Psych Final
Psych Final