1. 4 characteristics of apoptosis
    • cell shrinks
    • cytoskeleton breaks up
    • nuclear envelope fragments
    • chromatin condenses and fragments
  2. In contrast to necrosis and apoptosis, how do they differ in the way the cell behaves
    • apoptosis: cell shrinks
    • necrosis: cell expands
  3. Relate blebs to apoptotic bodies
    In apoptosis. A cell shrinks and forms blebs on the altered cellular surface. The blebs can break off into apoptotic bodies
  4. How does phospatidylserine act as a singal for apoptosis?
    The phosphatidylserine flips from the cytosol to the extracellular space where it is never found, and this signals for "eat me" signals.

    ssssssssserine + ssssssscytosol
  5. A cell that has encountered stresses like chemical injury, infection or loss of blood supply will go through this type of cell death
  6. Mechanism of necrosis
    cell swells and bursts open
  7. Capsases
    • in animal cells
    • a protease that are activated for apoptosis
    • can exist in the active or inactive form
    • the active form is a tetramer
    • activate other capsases
  8. T/F: an inactive capsase can activate other capsases. This is found in plant cells.
    F: An active capsase can activate other capsases and is found in animal cells.
  9. The role of a capsase?
    • activate other capsases
    • cleaveage of other cytosolic proteins
    • cleavage of nuclear lamina
  10. A Capsase can cause

    D) a and b
  11. 2 pathways apoptosis can be activated
    • extrinsic pathways ( from outside the cell) : activates capsases
    • intrinsic pathways (inside the cell)
  12. The release of mitochondrial proteins, * like cytochrome C is an example of?
    The intrinisc pathway to activate apoptosis
  13. Once a pathway of apoptosis is activated, describe the fate of the cell and what happens to it.
    • cell is doomed to die, no reversal.
    • Cell is phagocytized by macrophages or other phagocytes
Card Set
death of cells