Microbiology Exam 1

  1. What did John Tyndall do?
    He showed that some microbes in dust and air were resistant to high heat.
  2. What are the three isolation methods?
    - streak plate

    - pour plate

    - spread plate
  3. What is Taxonomy
    A formal system for organizing, classifying and naming living things.
  4. What did Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek do?
    He developed the first single lens microscope.
  5. What are the primary concerns of Taxonomy?
    - Classification: arrangement of organisms into groups

    - nonmenclature: assigning names to the various taxonomic rankings of each microbial species

    - identification: discovering and recording traits to place organisms in an overall taxonomic scheme
  6. What did Ferdinand Cohn do?
    He identified heat-resistant bacterial spores.

    ** Reason why heat didn't always eliminate mircrobes **
  7. What is spontaneous Generation?
    An early belief that some forms of life could arise from viatal forces present in non living or decomposing matter.

    Disproven by Louis Pasteur
  8. What is Aseptic Technique
    A technique used to reduce the spread of microbes in a medical setting and prevent wound infections.

    First introuduced by Joseph Lister.
  9. What does the term sterile mean?
    To completely eliminate all life forms, including spores, from objects or materials.
  10. What are the six main types of microorganisms?
    • Bacteria
    • Algae
    • Protozoa
    • Helminths
    • Fungi
    • Viruses
  11. What is the Germ Theory of Disease?
    Diseases are caused by the growth of microbes inside the body and not from sins, bad character, or poverty.
  12. Prokaryote
    • - no nucleus
    • - no membranous organelles
    • (bacteria)
  13. What did Robert Hooke do?
    Robert Hooke described the structures in cork as cells.
  14. What are teh two types of stains/Dyes?
    • Positive Stains (Basic Dyes)
    • - positive charge
    • - binds negative charge on cells

    • Negative Stains (Acidic Dyes)
    • - negative charge
    • - binds the background, not the cells
  15. What are the types of positive stains?
    • Simple Stains
    • - one dye

    • Differential Stains
    • - two different colored dyes

    • Special Stains
    • - emphasize certain cell parts
  16. What are the principles of microscopy?
    • Illumination
    • - the specimen must be lit to be seen by the naked eye


    • Resolution
    • - Ability to identify two points as separate from each other.
  17. What is the difference between Selective and Differential Media?
    Selective Media favors the growh of one type of bacteria over another

    Differential Media allows bacteria to show different reactions
  18. Microbes are managed and characterized with the five I's. What are the Five I's
    • Inoculation
    • Incubation
    • Isolation
    • Inspection
    • Identification
  19. What are the three categories of media classification?
    Physical sate

    Chemical composition

    Functional Type
  20. Eukaryote
    - Has nuclueus and membranous organelles

    - Algae, protozoa, helminths, and fungi
  21. What is the structure of a generalized prokaryotic cell?
    • External--------- flagella (controls movement)
    • pili (transfers DNA to other cells)
    • fimbriae (anchor) allows it to adhere to other cells and surfaces
    • glycocalyx (pink coating external to the cell wall)

    • Cell Envelope outer membrane (contains lipopolysaccharide)
    • cell wall (provides structural support)
    • cell membrane (controls what goes in and out)

    • Internal Cytoplasm (water-based solution filling entire cell)
    • Ribosomes (contains proteins and RNA)
    • Inclusions (stores nutrients such as fat; it can be used when needed)
    • Nucleoid/chromosome(Contains DNA)
    • Actin cytoskeleton (contributes to the shape of the cell)
    • Endospore (Allows for survival in adverse conditions)
Card Set
Microbiology Exam 1
Exam chapters 1,3,4,5