Social and emotional development final

  1. From the cradle to the grave, every human yearns for _____ in their life. We want to know what is expected in every situation
  2. In every human interaction, the only thing we can controls is our _______ ________. We cannot contorl others or make them change.
    Behavioral response
  3. Whereas positive emotions tell us things are okay, negative emotions are a ____ ___ ______.
    Call to action
  4. The love between a parent and a child is one that must lead toward _______, if we've done our job well.
  5. T or F: Life will provide opportunities for me to reflect and be self-aware, so I need not make time to reflect upon my goals regularly
  6. T or F: parents can start off with an authoritative parenting style and loosen toward permissive as children mature, but starting out as permissive and trying to reign teenagers in authoritatively is less successful
  7. High self-esteem and being truly prosocial requires the individual to ______ contact with others
  8. T or F: i=It is normal and important for individuals to exhibit aggression, but to feel angry is not necessary.
  9. the physical, emotional, and psychological bond that develops between infants and their primary caregivers
  10. It is believed that for positive outcomes, a secure attachment must form before the age of
    2-5 years old
  11. The primary function of the caregiver is to exist as a _______ ______ whereby the infant is comfortable exploring new areas independently and return to the caregiver in times of need.
    Secure base
  12. a cognitive map; schema, against which we compare all future interactions and relationships.
    Internal working model
  13. Infant attatchment: Avoidant-insecure; did not seek mom instrange situation; quiet; appear calm
    Type A
  14. Infant attachment: Resistant-insecure; sought mom for comfortbut were not comforted; conflicted; angry at mom; appear anxious
    Type C
  15. Infant attachement: Secure; seek mom after separation and arecomforted by her; comfortable exploring the unfamiliar
    Type B
  16. Infant attachment: Disorganized/Disoriented-insecure; hard toclassify; a mixture of behaviors of Types A & C
    Type D
  17. Adult attachment: Insecure; avoidant; derogate attachment; defensive; hostile affect
  18. Adult attachment: Insecure; resistant; ambivalent; troubled by past events with parents; angry; reported as more anxious
  19. Adult attachment style: secure; socially competent; cheerful; likable
  20. New adult attachment style that is with respect to loss or trauma
  21. A type A infant yeilds a ______ adult attachment style
  22. A Type C infant yeilds a _______ adult attachment style
  23. A Type B infant yeilds a _______ adult attachment style
  24. anxiety due to impending or actual separation of child from his or her primary caregiver.
    separation anxiety
  25. Separation anxiety is noticeable around _______ months and/or again between _______ months.
    9-10 months, 15-16 months
  26. assess separation anxiety; videotape all episodes, code & classify; eight episodes
    strange situation
  27. Freud held that parenting practices that instill fear of punishment and of losing parental love drive moral development.There are three discipline techniques:
    • - love withdrawl
    • - power assertion
    • - induction
  28. Freud's parenting practice, which----withhold attention and/or love from child as punishment; ex. "I'm going to leave you/send you away if you do that."
    love withdrawl
  29. Freud;s parenting practice which--- parent attempts to take control over the child and/or his resources; ex. Spanking, threatening, removing privileges
    power assertion
  30. Freud's parenting practice which---parent uses reasoning and explanation of the consequences for others of the child's actions; ex. "Don't hit him, he doesn't understand that it is your toy."
  31. Freud's parenting style which produces too much arousal, to point of anxiety
    love withdrawl
  32. Freud's parenting style which produces too much arousal, leading to hostility (aggression)
    power assertion
  33. Produces enough arousal to get attention and allow child to attend and process parent's rationale
  34. Parenting style has been best studied by ___________
    Diana Baumrind
  35. According to Baumrind, all parenting styles can be classified as containing some degree of two factors:
    Parental control, parental warmth
  36. Parenting style: high in control and warmth; mature demands of and responsiveness to children; allows lots of discussion and considers children's opinions before making final decision; have set rules and guidelines; use rationale and logic when disciplining
  37. Considered the most optimal parenting style.
  38. Type of parenting style which produces children high in self-competence, social relationships and personal responsibility
  39. parenting style: high in control and low in warmth; demanding and directive; low or no discussion with children; punitive punishment; no logic in discipline - do because I say so
  40. Thought to be the next to worst parenting style.
  41. Type of parenting style which produces children who are dependent and submissive or rebellious and hostile.
  42. Parenting style: low in control but high in warmth; very responsive to child's physical and emotional needs; few if any guidelines or directions; lots of freedom; parents avoid confrontation
    permissive/ indulgent
  43. Second to best parenting style
    Permissive/ indulgent
  44. Type of parenting style which produces children are less assertive and competent than authoritative peers; disregard rules; need for approval
    permissive/ indulgent
  45. parenting style: low in both control and warmth; completely rejecting physically and emotionally; no rules, no discussion, really no interest in child whatsoever; children are a burden; totally neglecting all needs
  46. Worst parenting style if not a tie with authoritarian.
  47. Type of parenting style which produces children are least competent and have most psychological and social problems.
  48. A ______ ______ ______ to development conceives the family as a dynamic unit. That is, each member’s behavior affects others and the entire family system
    family systems approach
  49. The number one behavior of the parent-adolescent relationship that impacts the individual’s development is ____________.
  50. a system that determines the flow of messages and feedback between family members
    communication network
  51. There are two kinds of communication networks:
    • - wheel network
    • - all-channel network
  52. Type of communication network that is traditional; one member is center; facilitates most of the communication
    wheel network
  53. Type of communication network that facilitates a greater flow of communication; max. level of feedback
    all-channel network
  54. Tye of communication network typical of authoritarian parenting style
    wheel network
  55. type of communication network that is typical of induction/ authoritative parenting styles
    all-channel network
  56. If one listens to another non-judgmentally and provides objective feedback to confirm the accuracy of what has been heard, this is called ______ _________.
    Active listening
  57. refers to voluntary actions intended to help others, with reward regarded or disregarded.
    helping behavior
  58. is any act initiated and performed with the goal of benefiting another person.
    prosocial behavior
  59. The purest forms of prosocial behavior are motivated by _________.
  60. an unselfish interest in helping another person; helping with no apparent reward for one's actions; based on principles of reciprocity and exchange, it is universal
  61. the ability to react to another's feelings with an emotional response that is similar to the other's feelings; emotionally take another's perspective
  62. a young infant's empathic response in which clear boundaries between the feelings and needs of the self and those of another have not yet been established or understood; up to 18-20 months. Ex. Katie crying when Bobby cried.
    global empthy
  63. explains altruism from an evolutionary perspective; it is the tendency to perform behaviors that may favor the chance of survival of people with similar genetic base; there is research support – individuals are more willing to provide help to people with higher relatedness in regards to gender and culture.
    kin-selection theory
  64. The Kin-Selection Theory was propsed by _________
    W.D. Hamilton
  65. helping or not depends primarily on whether you first feel empathy for the person and secondarily on the cost and rewards (social exchange concerns) of helping
    empathy-altruism hypothesis
  66. The empathy-altruism hypothesis was propsed by ________
    Daniel Bastson
  67. we help because we want to gain goods from the person who needs help; We calculate rewards and costs before we help with the goal of maximizing the former and minimizing the letter.
    social exchange theory
  68. the social exchange theory was proposed by _________
    George Homan
  69. This type of parenting yields more adolescents who engage in prosocial behavior
  70. Sometimes, when there is ambiguity or surprise in a chain of events, individuals are less likely to engage in prosocial behavior if there are several other people around
    bystander effect
  71. is a negative emotion experienced in response to harm, threat or danger.
  72. Where in the brain is anger processed?
  73. is intentional behavior aimed at causing either physical or psychological pain to another person or object.
  74. There are two primary types of aggression:
    • - hostile aggression
    • - instrumental aggression
  75. is an act of aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain. It is affective and retaliatory
    hostile aggression
  76. is aggression that serves as a means to some goal other than causing pain. It is predatory and often planned.
    instrumental aggression
  77. suggests that humans seem to have an inborn tendency to respond to certain provocative stimuli by striking out against the perpetrator.
  78. Aggression is not ______, it is _______
    universal; learned
  79. Freud held that humans are born with an instinct toward life, which he called _______, and an equally powerful instinct toward death, which he called ________.
    Eros; Thantos
  80. even if the amygdala is directly stimulated, whether or not the organism will aggress depends on _____ ______.
    situational factors
  81. Everyone experiences ______ but not everyone exhibits ________.
    anger; aggression
  82. The frequency of physical aggression peaks around ______ years of age. It then declines gradually. It aids in development of self-regulation.
    2-3 yrs.
  83. Freud held that two human defense mechanisms we use to dissipate aggressive tension are ____ and _______.
    sublimation; catharsis
  84. He and his colleagues conducted an experiment with Bobo dolls
  85. For children, harsh punishment provides a model of aggression and ________ prevent a child from engaging in the forbidden behavior when the child is unsupervised.
    does not
  86. corporal punishment (spanking) _________ the likelihood of the behavior occurring again and more often.
  87. The threat of _____ punishment, _______ administered, does, however, seem to reduce aggression
    mild; swiftly
  88. suggests that it is the swiftness and certainty of punishment rather than its severity that is important in leading to reductions in aggression.
  89. Effective Punishment must:
    • • Immediately follow behavior
    • • Occur consistently over time
    • • Fit the crime – not too severe nor mere slap on the wrist
  90. defined as a physical, mental or affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion
  91. Across situations and/or within individuals, suffering varies in its degree of:
    • - intensity
    • - duration
    • - frequency of occurrence
    • - usefulness
    • - purpose
  92. is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms or such damage
  93. Two types of pain:
    • -acute
    • -chronic
  94. pain that resolves quickly; lasts less than 30 days
  95. pain that extends beyond the expected period of healing
  96. is any number of emotions related to a sense of strong affection and attachment
  97. includes our love for objects, animals, principles or goals – things and activities we value.
    impersonal love
  98. This includes love between human beings. It is most closely related to and descriptive of our personal relationships that exist between family members, friends and couples
    interpersonal love
  99. interpersonal love consists of two components:
    • - compassionate love
    • - passionate love
  100. affection and a feeling of intimacy and warm attachment, and authentic and enduring bond, and a sense of mutual commitment
    compassionate love
  101. ntense longing that is often accompanied by physiological arousal (e.g., shortness of breath, increased heart rate); includes lust and physical attraction
    passionate love
  102. empirical works suggests we are attracted to others based on four principles:
    • - proximity
    • - similarity
    • - reciprocity
    • - physical attractiveness
  103. we are more likely to be attracted to those physically close to us-
  104. we are more likely to like those that are more like us; have more in common; more to talk about
  105. we are more likely to be attracted to those who who can return our interests- we are nice to those who are nice to us
  106. anthropologist, __________ conceives love as an experience of three overlapping stages
    Helen Fisher
  107. Anthropologist Helen Fisher (RutgersUniversity) conceives love as an experience of three overlapping stages:
    - lust, attraction and attachment
  108. Fishers love stage: passionate sexual drive; exposes people to others; releases testosterone and estrogen; duration = few weeks or months
  109. Fisher's love stage: individualized and romantic desire; encourages people to focus their energy on mating; when falling in love, we see increased levels of pheromones, dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin; duration = 1.5 to 3 yrs
  110. Fisher's love stage: accounts for long-term relationships; promotes tolerance of spouse and child long enough to rear an infant to adulthood; linked to higher levels of oxytocin and vasopressin; duration = many years to decades
  111. Researcher, ____________, conducted extensive interviews with people to discover what the word "love" meant to them.
    John Lee
  112. Lee concluded that humans think of love in six separate ways:
    • - eros
    • - ludas
    • -storage
    • -pragma
    • -mania
    • -agape
  113. refers to the romantic love that has tremendous passion, physical longing, deep intensity, and intimacy.
    Eros Love
  114. is called game-playing love. It is like the love of a knight for a princess. There are playful interactions here but little intimacy or deep intensity.
    ludas love
  115. a combination of storge and ludus love, refers to practical or logical love in which someone actively searches for a partner with certain characteristics.
    pragma love
  116. exemplifies friendship-based love. There is strong companionship and shared values here but little physical intimacy.
    storage love
  117. is a combination of eros and ludus love. It is also known as the troubled love. This love has jealousy and dependence (often called co-dependency), great intensity, some intimacy, and many psychological symptoms related to the relationship.
    mania love
  118. is also a blend of two other types of love, eros and storge. This is the love of altruism, of giving without asking anything in return, and of sacrificing oneself for one's partner. Many would consider it to be the purest form of love.
    agape love
  119. Triangular Theory of love was proposed by
    Robert Sternberg
  120. Triangular theory of love consists of the degree of three components
    • - intamacy
    • - commitment
    • - passion
  121. triangular theory of love: liking
  122. triangular theory of love: intimacy + commitment
    companionate love
  123. triangular theory of love: empty love
  124. triangular theory of love: passion + commitment
    fatuous love
  125. triangular theory of love: infatuation
  126. triangular theory of love: intimacy + passion
    romantic love
  127. triangular theory of love: intimacy + passion + commitment
    consummate love
  128. triangular theory of love: share confidences and personal lives
  129. triangular theory of love: expectation of relational permanence
  130. triangular theory of love: sexual attraction
  131. Sternberg purports that the ________ of love one experiences (size of triangle) depends on the absolute strength of these three components; the _____ of love (i.e., there are 8) one experiences depends on their strengths relative to each other (shape of the triangle).
    amount; type
  132. refers to the feeling of being in a close personal association and belonging together; a close affectionate bond formed through knowledge and experience
  133. True intimacy requires:
    • - dialogue
    • - transparency
    • - vulnerability
    • - reciprocity
    • - unconditional regard for the other
  134. He states that true intimacy requires 5 components
    Carl Rogers
  135. It requires an ability to be bothseparate participants and together participants in an intimate relationship
  136. The inability to differentiate self from another is called
  137. Researchers distinguish two forms of intimacy:
    • - emotional
    • -physical
Card Set
Social and emotional development final
Social and emotional development final