From the cradle to the grave, every human yearns for _____ in their life. We want to know what is expected in every situation
In every human interaction, the only thing we can controls is our _______ ________. We cannot contorl others or make them change.
Whereas positive emotions tell us things are okay, negative emotions are a ____ ___ ______.
Call to action
The love between a parent and a child is one that must lead toward _______, if we've done our job well.
T or F: Life will provide opportunities for me to reflect and be self-aware, so I need not make time to reflect upon my goals regularly
T or F: parents can start off with an authoritative parenting style and loosen toward permissive as children mature, but starting out as permissive and trying to reign teenagers in authoritatively is less successful
High self-esteem and being truly prosocial requires the individual to ______ contact with others
T or F: i=It is normal and important for individuals to exhibit aggression, but to feel angry is not necessary.
the physical, emotional, and psychological bond that develops between infants and their primary caregivers
It is believed that for positive outcomes, a secure attachment must form before the age of
2-5 years old
The primary function of the caregiver is to exist as a _______ ______ whereby the infant is comfortable exploring new areas independently and return to the caregiver in times of need.
a cognitive map; schema, against which we compare all future interactions and relationships.
Internal working model
Infant attatchment: Avoidant-insecure; did not seek mom instrange situation; quiet; appear calm
Infant attachment: Resistant-insecure; sought mom for comfortbut were not comforted; conflicted; angry at mom; appear anxious
Infant attachement: Secure; seek mom after separation and arecomforted by her; comfortable exploring the unfamiliar
Infant attachment: Disorganized/Disoriented-insecure; hard toclassify; a mixture of behaviors of Types A & C
Freud held that parenting practices that instill fear of punishment and of losing parental love drive moral development.There are three discipline techniques:
- love withdrawl
- power assertion
Freud's parenting practice, which----withhold attention and/or love from child as punishment; ex. "I'm going to leave you/send you away if you do that."
Freud;s parenting practice which--- parent attempts to take control over the child and/or his resources; ex. Spanking, threatening, removing privileges
Freud's parenting practice which---parent uses reasoning and explanation of the consequences for others of the child's actions; ex. "Don't hit him, he doesn't understand that it is your toy."
Freud's parenting style which produces too much arousal, to point of anxiety
Freud's parenting style which produces too much arousal, leading to hostility (aggression)
Produces enough arousal to get attention and allow child to attend and process parent's rationale
Parenting style has been best studied by ___________
According to Baumrind, all parenting styles can be classified as containing some degree of two factors:
Parental control, parental warmth
Parenting style: high in control and warmth; mature demands of and responsiveness to children; allows lots of discussion and considers children's opinions before making final decision; have set rules and guidelines; use rationale and logic when disciplining
Considered the most optimal parenting style.
Type of parenting style which produces children high in self-competence, social relationships and personal responsibility
parenting style: high in control and low in warmth; demanding and directive; low or no discussion with children; punitive punishment; no logic in discipline - do because I say so
Thought to be the next to worst parenting style.
Type of parenting style which produces children who are dependent and submissive or rebellious and hostile.
Parenting style: low in control but high in warmth; very responsive to child's physical and emotional needs; few if any guidelines or directions; lots of freedom; parents avoid confrontation
Second to best parenting style
Type of parenting style which produces children are less assertive and competent than authoritative peers; disregard rules; need for approval
parenting style: low in both control and warmth; completely rejecting physically and emotionally; no rules, no discussion, really no interest in child whatsoever; children are a burden; totally neglecting all needs
Worst parenting style if not a tie with authoritarian.
Type of parenting style which produces children are least competent and have most psychological and social problems.
A ______ ______ ______ to development conceives the family as a dynamic unit. That is, each member’s behavior affects others and the entire family system
family systems approach
The number one behavior of the parent-adolescent relationship that impacts the individual’s development is ____________.
a system that determines the flow of messages and feedback between family members
There are two kinds of communication networks:
- wheel network
- all-channel network
Type of communication network that is traditional; one member is center; facilitates most of the communication
Type of communication network that facilitates a greater flow of communication; max. level of feedback
Tye of communication network typical of authoritarian parenting style
type of communication network that is typical of induction/ authoritative parenting styles
If one listens to another non-judgmentally and provides objective feedback to confirm the accuracy of what has been heard, this is called ______ _________.
refers to voluntary actions intended to help others, with reward regarded or disregarded.
is any act initiated and performed with the goal of benefiting another person.
The purest forms of prosocial behavior are motivated by _________.
an unselfish interest in helping another person; helping with no apparent reward for one's actions; based on principles of reciprocity and exchange, it is universal
the ability to react to another's feelings with an emotional response that is similar to the other's feelings; emotionally take another's perspective
a young infant's empathic response in which clear boundaries between the feelings and needs of the self and those of another have not yet been established or understood; up to 18-20 months. Ex. Katie crying when Bobby cried.
explains altruism from an evolutionary perspective; it is the tendency to perform behaviors that may favor the chance of survival of people with similar genetic base; there is research support – individuals are more willing to provide help to people with higher relatedness in regards to gender and culture.
The Kin-Selection Theory was propsed by _________
helping or not depends primarily on whether you first feel empathy for the person and secondarily on the cost and rewards (social exchange concerns) of helping
The empathy-altruism hypothesis was propsed by ________
we help because we want to gain goods from the person who needs help; We calculate rewards and costs before we help with the goal of maximizing the former and minimizing the letter.
social exchange theory
the social exchange theory was proposed by _________
This type of parenting yields more adolescents who engage in prosocial behavior
Sometimes, when there is ambiguity or surprise in a chain of events, individuals are less likely to engage in prosocial behavior if there are several other people around
is a negative emotion experienced in response to harm, threat or danger.
Where in the brain is anger processed?
is intentional behavior aimed at causing either physical or psychological pain to another person or object.
There are two primary types of aggression:
- hostile aggression
- instrumental aggression
is an act of aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain. It is affective and retaliatory
is aggression that serves as a means to some goal other than causing pain. It is predatory and often planned.
suggests that humans seem to have an inborn tendency to respond to certain provocative stimuli by striking out against the perpetrator.
Aggression is not ______, it is _______
Freud held that humans are born with an instinct toward life, which he called _______, and an equally powerful instinct toward death, which he called ________.
even if the amygdala is directly stimulated, whether or not the organism will aggress depends on _____ ______.
Everyone experiences ______ but not everyone exhibits ________.
The frequency of physical aggression peaks around ______ years of age. It then declines gradually. It aids in development of self-regulation.
Freud held that two human defense mechanisms we use to dissipate aggressive tension are ____ and _______.
He and his colleagues conducted an experiment with Bobo dolls
For children, harsh punishment provides a model of aggression and ________ prevent a child from engaging in the forbidden behavior when the child is unsupervised.
corporal punishment (spanking) _________ the likelihood of the behavior occurring again and more often.
The threat of _____ punishment, _______ administered, does, however, seem to reduce aggression
suggests that it is the swiftness and certainty of punishment rather than its severity that is important in leading to reductions in aggression.
Effective Punishment must:
• Immediately follow behavior
• Occur consistently over time
• Fit the crime – not too severe nor mere slap on the wrist
defined as a physical, mental or affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion
Across situations and/or within individuals, suffering varies in its degree of:
- frequency of occurrence
is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms or such damage
Two types of pain:
pain that resolves quickly; lasts less than 30 days
pain that extends beyond the expected period of healing
is any number of emotions related to a sense of strong affection and attachment
includes our love for objects, animals, principles or goals – things and activities we value.
This includes love between human beings. It is most closely related to and descriptive of our personal relationships that exist between family members, friends and couples
interpersonal love consists of two components:
- compassionate love
- passionate love
affection and a feeling of intimacy and warm attachment, and authentic and enduring bond, and a sense of mutual commitment
ntense longing that is often accompanied by physiological arousal (e.g., shortness of breath, increased heart rate); includes lust and physical attraction
empirical works suggests we are attracted to others based on four principles:
- physical attractiveness
we are more likely to be attracted to those physically close to us-
we are more likely to like those that are more like us; have more in common; more to talk about
we are more likely to be attracted to those who who can return our interests- we are nice to those who are nice to us
anthropologist, __________ conceives love as an experience of three overlapping stages
Anthropologist Helen Fisher (RutgersUniversity) conceives love as an experience of three overlapping stages:
- lust, attraction and attachment
Fishers love stage: passionate sexual drive; exposes people to others; releases testosterone and estrogen; duration = few weeks or months
Fisher's love stage: individualized and romantic desire; encourages people to focus their energy on mating; when falling in love, we see increased levels of pheromones, dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin; duration = 1.5 to 3 yrs
Fisher's love stage: accounts for long-term relationships; promotes tolerance of spouse and child long enough to rear an infant to adulthood; linked to higher levels of oxytocin and vasopressin; duration = many years to decades
Researcher, ____________, conducted extensive interviews with people to discover what the word "love" meant to them.
Lee concluded that humans think of love in six separate ways:
refers to the romantic love that has tremendous passion, physical longing, deep intensity, and intimacy.
is called game-playing love. It is like the love of a knight for a princess. There are playful interactions here but little intimacy or deep intensity.
a combination of storge and ludus love, refers to practical or logical love in which someone actively searches for a partner with certain characteristics.
exemplifies friendship-based love. There is strong companionship and shared values here but little physical intimacy.
is a combination of eros and ludus love. It is also known as the troubled love. This love has jealousy and dependence (often called co-dependency), great intensity, some intimacy, and many psychological symptoms related to the relationship.
is also a blend of two other types of love, eros and storge. This is the love of altruism, of giving without asking anything in return, and of sacrificing oneself for one's partner. Many would consider it to be the purest form of love.
Triangular Theory of love was proposed by
Triangular theory of love consists of the degree of three components
triangular theory of love: liking
triangular theory of love: intimacy + commitment
triangular theory of love: empty love
triangular theory of love: passion + commitment
triangular theory of love: infatuation
triangular theory of love: intimacy + passion
triangular theory of love: intimacy + passion + commitment
triangular theory of love: share confidences and personal lives
triangular theory of love: expectation of relational permanence
triangular theory of love: sexual attraction
Sternberg purports that the ________ of love one experiences (size of triangle) depends on the absolute strength of these three components; the _____ of love (i.e., there are 8) one experiences depends on their strengths relative to each other (shape of the triangle).
refers to the feeling of being in a close personal association and belonging together; a close affectionate bond formed through knowledge and experience
True intimacy requires:
- unconditional regard for the other
He states that true intimacy requires 5 components
It requires an ability to be bothseparate participants and together participants in an intimate relationship
The inability to differentiate self from another is called