Define what the somatic nervous system controls, kinds of movements controlled, the location of the synapse, and the neurotransmitter made.
1. Somatic Nervous System: Composed of nerve fibers that send impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscle.
2. Number of Synapses if ONE- between the somatic motor neuron and the skeletal muscle.
3. The Neurotransmitter- Is ACETYLCHOLINE
Define the autonomic nervous system controls, the controls on the target organs, the locations of the 2 synapses, and the neurotransmitters made.
1. Autonomic Nervous System- Nervous system composed of nerve fibers that send impulses fromt he central nervous system to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
2. Locations of the two synapses are: first in the Autonomic ganglion (preganglionic) to the target issue (postganglionic)
3. The neurotransmitters made: ACETYLCHOLINE (preganglionic), and ACETYLCHOLINE or NOREPINEPHRINE (postganglionic)
What are the locations of the preganglioic neuron cell bodies in the sympathetic division? Based on locations, what is another name for the sympathetic division?
1. In the Lateral horns of the spinal cord (T1-L2)
2. THORACOLUMBAR DIVISION
Describe the pathway of the sympathetic nerve impulse as it leaves the spinal cord and travels to the sympathetic chain ganglia.
Preganglionic axons from a spinal nerve pass through a white ramus communicans into a sympathetic chain ganglion (aka paravertebral ganglia). Some axons synapse with a postganglionic neuron at the level of entry; others ascend or descend to other levles before synapsing. Each postganglionic axon exits the sympathetic chain through a gray ramus communicans and enters a spinal nerve.
What is another name for the sympathetic chain ganglia?
What does the gray rami communicans connect?
Connects the Sympathetic chain ganglia (paravertebral ganglia) to the postganglionic neuron.
What are the 4 exit pathways for the sympathetic axons?
1. Spinal Nerves
2. Sympathetic nerves
3. Splanchnic nerves
4. Adrenal gland
What makes the adrenal gland pathway unique?
Because it goes directly to specialized cells in the adrenal medulla.
What are the locations of the preganglionic neuron cell bodies of the parasympathetic division? Based on locastion, what is another name for the parasympathetic division?
1. They are in the brainstem and in sacral nerves 2-4
2. Craniosacral division
Preganglionic axons pass through ____ nerves and ____ nerves to ____ ganglia.
1. Cranial Nerves: III (Occulomotor), VII (Facial), IX (Glossophayneal), X (vagus)
2. Pelvic Splanchnic Nerves
3. Terminal Ganglia
According to the table 16.2 on page 563, what is the relative length of the preganglion neuron and the postganglionic neuron in the sympathetic division? What about the parasympathetic division?
1. Sympathetic- SHORT preganglionic, LONG postganglionic
2. Parasympathetic- LONG preganglionic, SHORT postganglionic
What is the location of the enteric nerve system? What actions would this system have in the digestive process?
1. Walls of the digestive organs (like the stomach)
2. ??? I don't know what this means....
What organs are innervated by sympathetic axons through spinal nerves?
1. Spinal Nerves
2. Head and neck nerve plexuses
3. Thoracic Nerve plexus
4. Abdominopelvic nerve plexuses
What 2 plexi make up the thoracic nerve plexi?
1. Cardiac Plexus (heart)
2. Pulmonary Plexus (lung)
What different plexi make up the abdominopelvic plexi?
2. Superior mesenteric plexus- (pancreas, small intestines, ascending colon, and transverse colon)
3. Inferior mesenteric plexes- (Transverse colon to the rectum)
4. Superior and inferior hypogastric plexuses- (Descending colon to the rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs)
The cranial nerves in the head and neck of the parasympathetic division are which ones?
1. Oculomotor (III), Occasionally
2. Facial (VII), Feels
3. Glossopharyngeal (IX) Glossy
Cranial nerve X (vagus) innervates what plexi and organs in the parasympathetic division?
1. Thoracic Organ- Cardiac, pulmonary, and esophageal plexuses
2. Abdominal Organ- Stomach, celiac, and superior mesenteric plexuses.
The pelvic nerves (sacral 2-4) innervates what organs in the parasympathetic division?
Which neurons release acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter? What are these neurons called?
1. All preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions and all postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic division.
2. Cholinergic Neuron
Which neurons release norepinephrine as a neurotransmitter? What are these neurons called?
1. Almost all postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division are adrenergic.
2. Adrenergic neuron
Where are nicotinic receptors found? Where are muscarinic receptors found?
1. Nicotinic- are found in the postganglionic neurons and the membranes os skeletal muscle cells.
2. Muscarinic- are found in efferctor organs.
Where are aplha and beta receptors found?
In effector organs.
What action occurs when nicotinic receptors are activated? What about alpha and beta receptors?
1. nicotinic-Produce an excitatory response to acetylcholine
2. alpha and beta-Produce an excitatory or inhibitory response to norepinephrine.
Why are nicotinic and muscarinic receptors called cholinergic receptors? Why are alpha and beta receptors called adrenergic receptors?
1. Because they respond to acetylcholine
2. Because they respond to norepinephrine.
Autonomic reflexes control most of the activity of what body parts?
Hypothalamus and higher brain centers (??)
It is important to remember that autonomic reflex activity is integrated somewhere in the ____nerve system.
What is sympathetic influence on the enteric (digestive) system? What is parasympathetic influence on the digestive system?
1. They Sympathetic action inhibits (prevent)
2. The Parasympathetic action stimulates (increased action)
What are examples of cerebral action on the autonomic function?
Thoughts and emotions can influcence ANS functions thourgh the hypothalamus
What are examples of hypothalamic action on autonomic function?
Anutonomic Nervous System integrating center that interacts with the cerebrum, limbic system, brainstem, and spinal cord; also regulates body temperature.
What are examples of brainstem action on autonomic function?
Autonomic Nervous System relfex centers for controlling pupil size, accommodation, tear production, salivation, coughing, swallowing, digestive activities, heart rate and force of contraction, blood vessel diameter, and respiration.
What are examples of spinal cord reflex action on autonomic function?
Autonomic Nervous System centers for regulating defecation, urination, penile and clitoral erection, and ejaculation.
Be aware of all of the functional generalizations about the autonomic nerve system.
1. Both divisions of the Autonomic nerve system produce stimulatory and inhibitory effects.
2. Most organs are innervated by both divisions of the Autonomic Nerve System. There is not an equal distribution of the two divisions.
3. When an organ is innervated by both divisions of the autonomic nervous system, opposite effects are observed. (digestive, urinary)
4. Either the sympathetic or parasympathetic division alone or both working together can coordinate the activities of different structures.
5. The sympathetic division has a more general effect than the parasympathetic division. (the sympathetic division diverges more: there are more postganglionic (long) neuron connections)
6. Sympathetic activity generally prepares the body for physical activity.
7. Parasympathetic activity is more important for vegetative functions (digestion activities)
What does the acronym SLUDD mean?
SLUDD stand for parasympathetic activities:
2. Lacrimation (tears)
What does the sympathetic prepare the body for?
Fight or Flight
What does the parasympathetic system do for the body?
What actions are brought about by the sympathetic division to prepare the body for "fight or flight"?
1. Increase heart rate
2. Blood vessel dilation in skeletal and cardiac muscles.
3. Dilation of air passageways and dilation of the pupil of the eye
4. Energy source availability is increased as glycogen is changed to glucose and fat cells break down triglycerides.
5. Muscles generate heat and body temperature increases.
6. Sweat gland activity increases.
7. Decrease in nonessential organ activities (digestion)