What was one of the most popular ways of obtaining spiritual benefits?
go on a pilgrimage
a ourney to some holy place or shrine
What were reasons for going on pilgrimages?
pray for saints help
seek the cure of some disease by touching some object that had belonged to the saint
give thanks for having deliverd them from some great peril
penance or atonement for doing wrong
For especially long pilgrimages, such as to Jerusalem or Rome, they might expect some ____.
forgiveness for past sins
WHo were the first pilgrims to the Holy Land?
In England, what was the most popular shrine?
Canterbury cathedral where the body of Saint Thomas Becket was buried and his relics preserved
When did they usually go on pilgrimages?
Geoffrey Chaucer is a ___ century English poet.
Thomas Becket had appointed ___ in the ___ century at the urging of his old friend __.
archbishop of canterbury
King Henry II of England
What was the story of Thomas?
infuriated the king by opposing the kings attempts to have clergymen charged with crimes tried by civil court and not by an ecclesiastical court. One evening in 1170 AD, Henry II said "By the eyes of God, is there not one person who will deliver me from this low born priest?" Four knights then murdered Thomas
In less than _ years, Thomas was made a saint of the ____ and his shrine at ____ became one of the great centers of __. It was widely believed that the cathedral's well water had ___. Many pilgrims took some of it home with them in small pewter flasks. These flasks bore the inscription, "______."
roman catholic church
miraculous healing powers
"For good people that are sick. Thomas is the best of physicians."
Before starting on his journey, wat did the pilgrim first do?
went to his local church to receive its blessings and prayers for his/her safety.
What did they wear?
robe of shaggy wool
round felt hat
scrip (small bag of food) on a piece of robe around neck
- if penance, barefoot and swore not to cut hair or beard until return
- if for Holy Land, cross of cloth sewn on robe
Who often went on horseback?
True or False:
- On pilgrimages, people discriminated based on class rank.
False: people mingled on a pilgrimage
The pilgrims were accompanied by __ and __, and told each other ___.
When was Cha3ucer born? DIE?
1340 or 1343
Chaucer lived in ___ and worked for ___ and ___. He was an __. He is best remembered for his __.
Kings Edward II and Henry IV
Chaucer wrote the Canterbury Tales in __. The tales include a __ and there were supposed to be __ tales. Each person was supposed to tell __ tales on the way to __ and _ on the way back, for a total of __ tales each. There would be __ pilgrims telling stories. In the prologue, __ pilgrims are mentioned. The 30th pilgrim would be __ and the 31st was ___.
someone who they would meet along the way
Did Chaucer finish his tales? How many did he complete?
22 of them- onethat wasnt quite finished and one that had just been started
In his work, Chaucer __ and comments on the people that are with him and problems of his day.
Most of his work is is written in a __ style, a ___, except the __ tale which is in rhymed couplets or in __ of seven lines.
Chaucer writes in ___ a lot with couplets. All of the tales are poetic except the ____ and the ___.
Tale of Melibeu
Canterbury is a ___, which is a story that includes other stories.
In England, the language most used by people was ___. However, the official language was __. The aristocrats spoke it and it was used in all-important political circles. By the time Chaucer wrote The Canterbury Tales, __ was still spoken by the high society, but __ was now being spoken by most people. The __ was quite different than what we speak today. As a matter of fact, there are different periods of the ___ language. THere is ___, ___, and __. Canterbury Tales was written in ___, of which there are ___ different dialects.
old, middle, modern
In Canterbury Tales, there are many different genre of literature. There is __, which really means an adventure story about knights all that they had to do, ___, __ a romantic poem called a ___, a ___ which deals with animals having human qualities, a ___ and an ___, which is part of a sermon that has examples in it to express a certain theme.
Political theory stated that England had three different classes of society: __, __, __.
profesional (merchant class)- urban class because these people were engaged in activities that happened in the city
The members of the __ are related to the land or to a lord. They were the __, __, ___, ___, ___, __, __.
The members of the __ were those who were related to the church. They were the __, __, __, __, __, __ and __.
cleric (Student of Philosophy)
The members of the ___ were men and women from the fast growing towns. They generally were involved in either the production or selling of products or services to other people. They were the __ (x10)
professional, merchant or urban class
wife of Bath (clothmaker)
In each class, there was a ___.
Of all the people on the pilgrimage, who was the highest?
In the ecclesiastical order, how many types of clergy? What?
Which people were classified under them?
secular- archbishops, bishops pastors, chaplains, parsons and other parish priests
regular order- monks, friars, nuns
__: members of the clerg that worked with the people, the laity and lived in various parishes
__: either cloistered or followed certain rules established by their founder
regular order clergy
to diminish or criticize a person, place or thing; use humor, sarcasm or irony to accomplish goal
act of making fun or a person, place or thing. The laughter is derisive and is being used as a weapon to diminish or deride a person, place or thing.
to ridicule or mock
means to mock, taunt, tease, or ridicule. You do ths by using a lot of praise. Give toomuch praise so that everyone knows you are actually dispraising the person, place or thing
means the author states on thing but actually means the opposite; in fancy language it means the implied attitudes are opposite of literal attitudes
in a situation/ event, the observer explects a certain outcome or response. However, the observer gets the opposite
n a play a character states certain things to another character. Everyone on stage accepts what the character said as the truth.However, the audience knows that what was said is not true at all. As a matter of fact, they know the opposite is true.
What are Chaucer's roles in the story?
(presents his philosophy)- philosopher
observer- expected to tell story
He is one of many pilgrims who is going to visit the shrine of Saint Thomas BEcket at Canterbury Cathedral. The night before, e stayed at the Tabard Inn, owned and operated by Harry Bailey. He will be expected to tell his stories to everyone else.
Chaucer, the pilgrim
What is the inn called?
Who owns it?
This man represents the ideal soldier of te times. He follows the code of chivalry. This code was a set of rules for all knights to follow. He is brave, experienced in fighting, loyal, courageous, caring, a true gentlemen. HE is also the perfect Christian soldier. He is fair and has never taken advantage of anyone. He always respects women and children
son of the knight; is in training to become a knight; supposed to learn all about the rules of knighthood and the physical skills of becoming a knight
Bath is a small town in Eng. not this woman's husband. Her occupation is that of a seamstress. She has been married a number of times and had many affairs in her youth. She presents herself as a person who likes marriage, sex and fine clothes. She also enjoys talking and arguing. She is deaf in one ear and as a gap between er two front teeth. She has traveled on a number of pilgrimages and believes she is quite religious.
Wife of Bath (Alison)
He granted Papal indulgences (reprieves from penance) in exchange for a financial donation to the Catholic Church. This particular character is very good in selling these indulgences. At that time people had to do two types of penances. One was to pray or do something holy and the other was to actually do a physical penance. An example might be for a person to kneel on the front steps of the church for an hour. The indulgence was to take way the ysical part of the penance
short-shouldered, broad, thinck; big man; has a wart on his nose and has a big, fire breathing mouth on him; drinks a lot; uses his pysical strength to do things; crude and boorish; real job in life is to grind the wheat into flour; e is trusted by many to be honest in his job; job is hard to do and demands some physical strength
lady is a nun who is in charge of her convent; dainty; dresses quite well; learned to speak in a school in eng., not in Paris, France; likes to own things; as a nun she has taken the vow of povery, chastity, and obedience to her superiors
__ in the Middle Ages lived in monasteries and followed the rules of Saint Benedict. There were many rules, but the four most important ones were: poverty, chastity, obedience, and be cloistered. He is supposed to be very religious and devote his life to God
__ is a member of the community of St. Francis of Assisi; they were to help the poor of the community; were to make teir own living by begging for money to buy food; whatever was left over was to be used for the poor.Also took the vows of poverty, chastity and obedience; his main concern is to help oters who are the worst
During the middle ages there were two types of courts. One as the __ court- those who broke the gov. law, Then there was an __ court- used for those who were accused of breaking a church law; job of the __ was to bring the accused to the ecclesiastical court. Many people feared him because at that time anyone could accuse anyone else of committing a religious crime. He is supposed to do his job honestly, never take bribes. or be persuaded to go after someone who was falsely accused
leader of the pilgrimage to Canterbury; he is Harry Bailey, the owner of the Inn. It is at his inn that everyone is staying. It's Harry's idea for every one to tell stories and win a prize; he owns the inn which is a bar, restaurant and hotel all in one
during the mid. ages, every priest had a title. Of all the priest, the lowest of the low was the __. He is a simple priest who was usually poor; job was to preach the Good NEws Of Jesus CHrist to the members of his parish. During this time, parishes were not as big as they are today. Thus, e was expected to visit the members of his congregation at their homes
__ is a poor student of philosophy. This young man only wants to be a student all his life studying Philosophy; If a person does study philosophy for an extended period of time, they usually become professors of Philosophy
Clerk (Oxford Cleric)
this man was a successful lawyer chosen by the knig to be a judge in areas of the country that needed a judge to hear various cases. Only the most knowledgeable and honest of all men were picked by the king
Serjeant at the Law
in charge of buying the provisions for a college or court; anything from food to paper to books to whatever had to be purchased by this man; the better ones were able to purchase things when they were on sale, tus saving the college or court some money
trades in furs and other clothes;these men were usually rather wealthy and obviously wore fine clothes; however, this one is in debt
owner of a ship that engaged in trading and sometimes in battle; traveled all around Eng. down the coast of Europe into the Mediterranean Sea to the ports of S. Europe and N. Africa; prefers to live on his ship and feels better when his at sea
supposed to be one of the most admired men in society; quite knowledgeable in med., surgery, and astronomy; During the Middle Ages, many people believed that illness was caused by many things. One of these items was that people got sick because of the position of the stars and planets. Thus, a good one of these had to know his astronomy as well as his medicine; most of that time were men who were quite intelligent and were usually in good physical health
This word means free man who owned land; not a slave, or a vassal, or a lord. He had money and owned a decent amount of land. His home was rather large and most of the land he had was used for farming and hunting
in charge of everything that hapened on his lord's land. also in charge of all the employees that worked for his lord; has a responsible job and is trusted by the lord; has to make sure that noone cheats his lord or tricks his lord into losing anything
poor guy is a member of the peasant class; spends his time working on the fields all day long/ Many hours are spent by this man spreading manure all over the farmland to act as fertilizer; also plows the fields and plants the seeds so that crops can grow; hard workers who were overworked and underpaid
_ were a combination of what we call today unioins and social fraternities; these men usually dressed in the style of their guild; carpenters wore ertain clothes while hat makers wore a certain style of cloting; men were not poor, but not quite yet a part of middle class; usually hard workers who made a reasonable amt. of money; women like being married to these types of men beause they would have some money to buy things for themselves and have money for food
usually worked in an Inn; inn was a bar, a restaurant and a hotel all wrapped into one; job was obvious. Better ones performed their tasks and bigger and better inns
__ was the servant to the knigt and squire; besides performing his servant duties he might also have other skills; since he is the servant to the knight, e would prob have the ability to perform skills in fighting, hunting and riding a horse
a nun who has taken vows of poverty, chastity and obedience; In this case, she is the secretary to the Nun that was described earlier
these three men are __ who are accompanying the nun; actually there is only one ever mentioned; later he tels a story to the other pilgrims
In ___, there was a daylong battle near ___.
- __ killed King Harold of England (Last Anglo- Saxon king)
-- ___ (never withdrew from England
Duke William of Normandy
- son of previous duke of Normandy who was cousin of ___.
---- died childless, leaving ___, earl of Wessex, the throne
---- __ claimed right to the throne
---- wanted to rule ___, not eliminate it.
William of Normandy
Edward the Confessor
__= administrative ability (emphasis on law/ order/ cultural unity)
- inventory of almost every piece of property in England- ___
-- people taxed on what they owned
- William and successors: title _____
-- new language: __/ new social system: ___
Duke of Normandy/ King of England
social and caste system, property, and military system (relative concept of hierarchy- God's supreme over lord)
sense of form, manners that permeated life, art, literature
- sense of formalism to life= institution of knighthood and code of chivalry
Boys trained early to become ___.
- trained in houses other than own
- training complete- "__" knight with title __
Knighthood grounded in __- entailed social codes
system of ideals/social codes governing behavior of knights and gentlewomen- adhere to oath of loyalty to overlord and observe certain rules of warfare; never attack unarmed opponet/ adorning particular lady= means of achieving self- improvement; idea that revering/ acting in the name of a lady made knight braver and better (courtly love- non sexual)- knight wears lady's colors in battle and glorifies her in words inspired by her but she was still out of reach; set above admirer; did little to approve women's position (perceived value from land walue brought to marriage); gave rise to romance
Medieval society centered around __.
- some make living outside it ( cities like __ and ___)
- most medieval art: not ___
ballads-- middle class: ___
-- free/ tied to neither land nor __ and __
--- point of view expressed in __ sung in ale houses and firesides
The Great Happenings (___- Chaucer)
1) __: series of wars waged by European Christians against Muslims w/ Jerusalem and Holy Land as prize
a) __ failed to hold Jerusalem= benefited from Middle East contact
i) math, astronomy, architect, crafts
2) Martyrdom of ___: Norman chancellor under Henry II (1154-1189) (vassal under pope- head of church and God's representatives)
a) All christians- ___
b) __: powerful; controlled most of crowned heads of Europe
c) _ took Pope's side
i) ___= four knights of Henry murdered him in his cathedral
- led to corruption= monk's luxury/ friar chases women and money/ summoner and pardoner blackmail with threats and eternal damnation
ii) one positive effect: fostered ___- system of belief and symbol that transcended European national cultures
iii) __- center of learning
- __= libraries and publishers
- __= international language
- __= (king of kings) Kingdom= no boundaries
__: return to older, democratic tendencies in England
1) __ (1215) at Runnymede strongly backed by pope; defeat for ___
2) later became basis for England ___ (rights like __ and legislative __ established)
central papal power
trial by jury; taxation
__ ( 1337-1453) England v/ France
1) based on dubious claims to __ throne by two __ kings- __ (1327-'77) and ___ (1413-1422)
a) militarily unsuccessful for England
i) important factor in gradual development of British national consciousness
- after war, England no longer best represented by __, but more accurately by ___ = formed nucleus of English armies in France
1. yard long arrows fly over castle walls
2. became dominant force in new society that grew out of ruins of feudalism
- old ideas of chivaly lived only in stories
100 years war
knight in sharming armor
green clad yeoman (small landowner)
Black Death ( Bubonic Plague) England. 1348- '49
1) highly contagios= spread by __ from infected rats
reduced pop. by __ (labor shortage, gave lower class more leverage than ever before over overlords
- long term result: ___
1) knocked out __ last support
- by the time ___ 1486 marriage reconciled warring Houses of __ and __= middle ages ending
2) Henry began the ___ line
- led to ___
a) __ about to begin
York and Lancaster
Morris Bishop: If England won the Battle of Hastings, William the Conquerer would have been known as William the ___
The end of the MIddle Ages consisted of __, __, and __
Bubonic Plague, development of monastery system and intro of gunpowder
Foreign coins were melted down into __
Serfs used the __ for purchases within the community
__ introduced into Eng. warfare around 1325
Who is the father of English poetry? He made the __ language respectable. Ordinary people spoke ____- ancestor of Modern; __ and ___ were main languages- they thought English couldn't possibly convey all the nuances/ complexities of serious literature
Chaucer was a well known ___ who served under three kings: __, __, and __.
everyday language spoken in London and East Midlands; lent respectability to English; Chaucer composed in this
Chaucer was born into middle- class family in London ot long after the beginning of the ___. His father was a ___. Chaucer read a great deal/ legal training. Government career- attached to several noble patrons. Captured in ___ while serving as a soldier in the ___; important enough to have king contribute to ransom.
100 Yrs. War
100 Yrs. War
Chaucer married ___, had __ kids, and was sent to Europe as the king's ___.
In 13657, he was awarded first of several ___ for his services to the Crown.
In 1385, he was appinted ___ in Kent and was later a member of __.
Justice of the Peace
He was an important government servant, but still wrote (sometimes for personal advancement)
In 1369, he wrote his first important poem ____ in memory of patron's wife
1) Btw. 1374-1386, he created several poems, such as (__/__/___)
The Book of the Duchess
House of Fame
Parliament of Fowls
Troilus and Criseyde
In 1372 and 1378, Chaucer traveled to __, influenced by poems of Bante and Petrarch and stories of Giovanni Boccaccio
What is the connection between Decameron and Canterbury Tales
framing device: characters tell tales
Tales based on similar old plots
Chaucer begain writing the Canterbury Tales in __- unemployment (never completed all stories [couldn't find rhymes])
Chaucer used several metrical forms and some prose; dominant meter based on __ syllables (unstressed then stressed)
- This is called ___.
Father in the Family Vault
1) DIed ___ (erected tombstone in __ in 1556)
Oct. 25, 1400
The Canterbury Tales: Snapshot of an Age
1) When is the pilgrimage?
spring (archetypal time of new life and awakening)
Where does the Canterbury Tales start out?
tabard Inn in Southwark
How many pilgrims does Chaucer meet?
29 other pilgrims
What type of unity is the Canterbury Tales?
THe Canterbury Tales were translated from Middle to Modern English by __.