Creativity Final

  1. Age of Exploration -
    moved trade from the Mediterranean into the Atlantic. (pg. 376) moved the center of creativity northward
  2. anti-pope -
    a person who opposes a legitimately elected or sitting Pope and makes asignificantly accepted competing claim to be the Pope. First one appointed by Henry IV
  3. Bartholomew Diaz -
    pg. 365. Portuguese captain who was the first to round the Cape of Good Hope (on the southern tip of Africa) which opened the possibility to sail to Asia. Didn’t explore any more beyond entering the new ocean, but returned to Portugal
  4. Battle of Hastings -
    took place on 14 October 1066. It was the decisive Norman victory in the Norman Conquest of England, fought between the Norman army of Duke William II of Normandy and the English army of King Harold II. The famous Bayeux Tapestry depicts the events before and during the battle.
  5. Benedictine Rule-
    A book of precepts writtenby Benedict for Monks. Served as the basis for all monastic orders in the west- required vows of poverty, chastity, obedience, labor and religious devotion -simple clothing and food, and enough sleep - well regimented day
  6. Beowulf -
    - set in Scandinavia, commonly cited as one of the most important works of Anglo-Saxon Literature. It survives in a single manuscript known as the NowellCodex Its composition by an anonymous Anglo-Saxon poet is datedbetween the 8th and the early 11th century
  7. Bernard of Clairvaux -
    was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian order. He has one of the most famous set of glossings (where a teacher would expound on a word or phrase encountered in reading) and many sermons. Over 90 monasteries were started that use his monastery as their model.
  8. Bill of rights-
    the Magna Carta was a bill of rights, guaranteeing certain rights for the English nobility and limiting the power of John and all future English monarchs and also guaranteed rights to the church. Henry the III of england tried to ignore the restrictions that were put on him by the bill of rights.
  9. Black Death -
    -The common name for the Bubonic Plague, a disease that swept Europe and reduced its population during the dark ages by anywhere between one-third and 80%. It is spread by fleas that obtain the pathogen from disease-bearing rats.
  10. Boethius -
    was a Christian philosopher of the early 6th century. He devoted most ofhis time translating the greek classics into latin. His greatest work is called Consolation of Phiolosophy.
  11. Canterbury Cathedral -
    in Canterbury, Kent, is one of the oldest andmost famous Christian structures in England. This is the most popular pilgrimage destination.Thomas a Becket was killed by four knights nearby in an attempt to impress King Henry
  12. Canterbury Tales-
    A series of stories written by Chaucer which give wonderful insight into the historical setting of the fourteenth century. These stories were written in Middle english even though he wrote them for a french speaking class and make the english language the main language for literacy production. The series of stories are about going on the pilgrimage to canterbury.
  13. Carolingian Dynasty-
    p.255-260 Started by Pepin the Short , who was a royal adviser - his father Pepin of Herstal helped to unite the Franks. The carolingian dynasty accepted the catholic church. After Pepin died Charlemagne took over and had stong military prowess and was later known as the Holy Roman Emperor.
  14. Carolingian Renaissance-
    p.259 A brief period of learning and creativity in Charlemagne's Europe- Beowulf was written along with other works - libraries developed -Carolingian script made writing easier and more understandable
  15. Charlemagne-
    p.256-7,260 Had his capital in Aachen and built a church similar to theRavenna church - tried to be like Theodoric - expanded the empire - crowned the Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III. Came up with the divine right of kings
  16. Chartres-
    this is a cathedral in france that is the best example of gothic style architecture. A successful pilgrimmage destination
  17. Christopher Columbus -
    explorer who sailed across the atlantic ocean trying to find a new trade route to India, inadvertently discovered the North American Continent, He attempted to set up Spanish colonies on islands near the main land and his voyages were funded by the Queen of Spain, Isabella I. He was Italian and was originally denied funding by the Portuguese.
  18. Consolation of Philosophy-
    p.243 Treatise written by Boethius during the reign of Theodoric after the fall of Italy. An attempt to reconcile his belief in Christianity w/ his quest to understand pagan classics of Greece.... He says: “As far as you are able, join faith to reason”.
  19. Courtly love-
    Rules that were illustrated in literature that provided entertainmentfor the reader, but also gave instructions to the knights and ladies on the proper way to behave. These rules became the basis of noble society and remained strongly in force until the fifteenth century.This is the list of interesting rules such as: “When made public, love rarely endures,” “Every lover regularly turns pale in the presence of his beloved,” “Real jealousy always increases the feeling of love,” etc
  20. Dante Alighieri-
    Fourteenth Century author of Divine comedy which contains much about the politics of Florence. By writing this book is largely solidified the Italian language. He was exiled from Florence, Italy because of his political association with the white Guelph faction. Divine Comedy is an expression of Dante’s views of the afterlife
  21. Dark Ages-
    The dark ages refer to the period after the collapse of the Western Roman Republic. During the dark ages progress and creativity stopped completely, there was lawlessness, and great declines of cities.
  22. Divine Comedy-
    Work written by Dante about his journey through the afterlife. It is a comedy not because it makes you laugh but because it begins with sadness and ends with happiness. Work is divided up into a prologue, inferno, purgatory, and paradise. Was the literary work that solidified the Italian language.
  23. Divine right of kings-
    p 258 Writings of St. Augustine that stated a king had a special mandate from God or “divine right” to rule in addition to being subject to the law. Helped bring unity to Charlemagne's empire - made criticisms of the king both treasonous and heretical - not questioned until the revolutions
  24. Dominicans-
    Dominicans were people who followed Saint Dominic. They put a great emphasis on education and as a result many monks became scholars and teachers.They also put a great emphasis on doctrinal purity which led them to have powerful positions within the church.
  25. English common law-
    this law was ordered by Henry II which made changes to the English judicial system. It based the law on precedent rather than a code and introduced trial by jury.
  26. fall of Constantinople-
    was taken over by the turks. Before the fall, trade was centered in the Mediterranean basin. After the fall, the turks dominated trade and had a lot of control over who traded with who. The natural relationships between Christian Europe and the Christian Byzantine Empire were ruptured.
  27. Ferdinand Magellan-
    was commissioned by Charles I of spain to seek a route around the americas and to the far east. After problems with winter weather he founded the strait of Magellan which is on the south tip of south america. He was the first person to sail completely around the world.
  28. feudal system-
    p.249,343 Developed when people tried to bring stability and peace toEurope - Lords, vassals (knights), and serfs. Government system that accompanied the Great Chain of Being and the Three Estates.
  29. First Crusade-
    during the first crusade the knights and crusaders marched across Europe and gathered a massive military with religious zeal. Over the next couple of years they were able to capture most of the holy land, but was reconquered by Saladin.
  30. First Crusade-
    during the first crusade the knights and crusaders marched across Europe and gathered a massive military with religious zeal. Over the next couple of years they were able to capture most of the holy land, but was reconquered by Saladin.
  31. Francesco Petrarch-
    was the early leader of humanism who wrote humanistic love poems. He believed that by studying the ancient past truths could be revealed that would allow people to be more christian.
  32. Francis Drake-
    pg. 375 Greatest and most renowned of all the privateers (essentially pirates but with some limited, or secret, backing by the English monarch.)Drake was a master sailor and an excellent pirate, who particularly delighted in robbing and tormenting the Spanish. Drake and his crew became the first Englishmen to circum-navigate the earth. Also commanded the english victory against the Spanish armada and was knighted by queen elizabeth in honor of his victory.
  33. Franciscans-
    followers of Saint Francis of Assisi; they would enter towns and find ways to serve those who lived there.They did not own land rather they begged for their substance among the merchants and nobility. They were known as the mendicant (begging) order.
  34. Francisco Pizarro -
    pg. 373 Spanish conquistador. Conquered the Incas and claimed the area of Peru for Spain.
  35. Galileo-
    came up with the scientific principles of the pendulum clock and invented the telescope. Proved Aristotle’s description of motion to be wrong
  36. Genghis Khan-
    pg 287 (name means “great leader”) originally named Temujin -started the Mongol Empire by getting tribes to unify and then began to expand greatly using process of plunder. Invaded China, began Yuan Dynasty.
  37. Geoffrey Chaucer
    wrote Canterbury Tales. One of the first, and the most famous writer to use the new form of English (Middle English.)Solidified Middle English language.
  38. Geoffrey of Monmouth-
    wrote about king arthur in his History of the Kings of Britian. In this book Monmouth represented Arthur as a conqueror of western europe, and Arthur gained a more legendary status.
  39. Ghibellines-
    a political party in the middle ages that supported the emperor.They fought with the Guelphs. The division of the parties is rooted inthe conflict between Holy Roman Emporer Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII over the issue of lay investiture. The city of Siena was typically Ghibelline.
  40. Gloria-
    accompanied the Kyria in regards to the medieval music chants, part ofthe ordinary segment of mass. It comes after the Introit (Proper) and Kyrie (Ordinary), and before the Collect (Proper) (Page 320)
  41. Gothic-
    an architectural style that is resembled by stained glass windows, flying buttresses, gargoyles, high arches and the pointed arch. Notre Dame in Paris.Style began with the reconstruction of the abbey church of St-Denis justoutside Paris.
  42. Gregorian Chant-
    chant in honor of Pope Gregory I that was used in mass. The chant is monophonic, conjunct and sung in unison.
  43. Gregory I -
    Pope Gregory I, chosen as a reform pope from 590-604. Shaped the medieval Catholic Church. Had a huge argument with Eutychius in Constantinople regarding the weight and substance of resurrection. Gregory won. Gave up trying to reconcile the east Orthodox church with his Catholic church in the west. Hebecame a personal secretary to Pope Pelagius II and then became pope himself.He focused on missionary work, standardizing Catholic liturgy, and supporting monastic ways of living. Allowed simple form of music in mass called the “Gregorian Chant.” (ch17, pg 252-53)
  44. Gregory VII-
    attempted to gain papal control over the local church in germany. He was the pope and insisted upon “freedom of the church” and the right of the church to handle their own affairs. He threatened to excommunicate any ruler that was appointed by any authority other than his own. Gregory excommunicated Henry IV, who later battled him and was appointed an anti-pope. Henry ended up losing his throne.
  45. Guelphs -
    political party in the middle ages who favored the papal position. The party later broke into two different parties: the whites and blacks. Dante was a Guelph.
  46. Heavy plow-
    helpful agriculture innovation that allowed for soil to be aerated,thus increasing it’s quality and growing capacity. It also provided furrows and provided natural drainage to fields. The plow allowed for greater amounts of product to be produced.
  47. Hernan Cortes (Cortez) -
    he was a great spanish conquistadore that conquered mexico and the Aztecs. He was thought to be the god Queztecoatl.
  48. Holy Roman Emperor-
    Charlemagne was the first appointed by Pope Leo III. The Holy Roman Empire became another name for the collection of mostly German-speaking states which is now known as Germany -- they comprise the easter portion of Charlemagne’s old empire.
  49. illuminated manuscripts-
    manuscripts that were enhanced with gold and silver and were an important type of art in the early medieval period.
  50. Inferno-
    The first section of the Divine Comedy by Dante Aligheri. The narrators led on a journey through Hell by the Roman poet Virgil. There are 9 circles of hell.
  51. Inquisition-
    p. 298-299 A court established by the church that was charged with the responsibility of rooting out heresy and dissent. The judge would allow a certain time for people to confess their sins and if they didn’t they could be burned to death, or even tortured
  52. Joan of Arc-
    she was chosen as head of the french army that was sent out to relieve the seige of the french and english. She was captured by allies of the English and was tried as a witch and then burned at the stake.
  53. Johannes Gutenberg-
    Inventor of printing press and movable type. Printed the bible and had to learn to make paper as well.
  54. King John of England-
    Younger brother of Richard the Lion hearted. King of England when the noblemen forced him to sign the Magna Carta.
  55. Kyrie-
    medieval music that was part of the Ordinary Mass, followed the Introit (Introduction) and preceded the Gloria-Page 320
  56. Lateran councils-
    p.294 main goal was to separate the church from secular influences such as elimination of the involvement of kings and emperors in the election of the pope and naming bishops. They also reaffirmed the celibacy of the clergy.
  57. lay investiture-
    a practice that had been insisted upon by several Roman and Byzantine emperors as a way to ensure they had some control over the church- stated that power to appoint bishops lay solely withing the church
  58. Leo III-
    was the pope who had been falsely accused of impropriety. Appointed Charlemagne as the first Holy Roman Emperor.
  59. lord-
    local ruler under the feudal system who owns land and serfs.Vassals were subject to lords.
  60. Magna Carta-
    p. 281 A bill of rights, limited king’s power, guaranteed rights of church, established parliament- became the basis of English government overtime.
  61. Maimonides-
    p.294 A great Jewish scholar of the Middle Ages who lived in Spain. He benefited from the synergistic relationship between the Spanish Jews and the Muslims in Spain that mutually promoted learning and science.
  62. Martin Luther-
    challenged the church’s sales of indulgences and he brought about the protestant reformation.
  63. Medici Family-
    a family from florence that gained great wealth and prestige from trade and manufacturing during the changes of the third estate. They used their money to enter mercantilism and thus defined a new role for themselves in nobility.
  64. Medieval -
    refers to the middle ages (period between the fall of the western roman empire and the renaissance).
  65. Mendicant -
    the Franciscans were called a mendicant (begging) order. They begged for their sustenance among those who might agree with their actions
  66. Merchant of Venice-
    Play by Shakespeare featuring a stereotypical Jewish banker as the antagonist. It illustrates the feelings of resentment toward Jewish bankers that were typical of Europe at this time and later.
  67. Notre Dame in Paris-
    really famous cathedral that took a long time to build. Its gargoyles are partially hollow so they can serve as rain spouts. The multi-voiced organum stile of music flourished in Paris, chiefly at this cathedral
  68. Papal States-
    p. 252, 283 A civil state surrounding the city of Rome and the Pope served as its king. The popes had to fight several wars to defend their position as ruler of the Papal States
  69. Paradise -
    the equivalent of heaven in the Catholic religion. This is the 4th and final section of Dante’s Divine Comedy. Paradise is reached as one reaches the top of Mount Purgatory.
  70. Pilgrimage-
    292-294 Those who did not want to fight in the crusades, pilgrimage was the ultimate reforming act. Some went as mandated by a priest for remission of sins, some went to fulfill vows, some when to be more holy of their own initiative, and some for adventure. Pilgrimages often lasted for months. Churches and monastaries along the way would often provide food and lodging. Major pilgimage sites include Santiago de Compostela, Jerusalem, Canterbury, Rome, Lourdes, and Czestochowa.
  71. Pope Urban II -
    pg. 284 Called for a holy crusade to free the Holy Land from Muslim control. He urged all knights to stop fighting each other and to band together in a common cause to free the Holy Land. To encourage Christians to volunteer, he offered indulgences to those who would go and fight.
  72. Prince Henry the Navigator
    pg. 363-364 Son of King John of Portugal and an English princess. Along with his brothers, he led the Portuguese army in the conquest of Cuerta, a Muslim stronghold and trading center in Morocco. He strongly promoted the exploration of the western coast of Africa and the adjacent islands. Established a school and technological center for maritime pursuits in Sagres. His maritime center designed and built the new ocean-going ship, the caravel.
  73. Prologue -
    the first section on Dante’s Divine Comedy.
  74. Protestant Reformation -
    Begun with Martin Luther’s challenge of the Catholic Church. Even before the Reformation, the church had lost the support of the people and nobility
  75. Purgatory -
    The last step in the afterlife before Paradise. The third section in Dante’s Divine Comedy. In this section, travelers of the afterworld have to ascend Mount Purgatory which has 7 levels related to the 7 deadly sins
  76. Romanesque -
    The Roman-like style of architecture. Typically had thick and substantial walls, and arches.
  77. Saladin-
    p. 285 Islamic leader during the Crusades - reconquered Jerusalem and much of the land lost during the First Crusade
  78. Scholasticism-
    p. 302-4 premise was that there is basic agreement between philosophy as understood through logic and theology as given through revelation - used logic and discussion to come to conclusions - Peter Abelard- originated scholasticism, strongest proponent.
  79. Siege of Orleans -
    It was when the English controlled much of France north of the Loire Valley and attempted to expand their holdings by attacking Orleans. It was lifted upon Joan of Arc’s appearance to relieve the siege and the energizing of the French army.
  80. serfs-
    workers under the feudal system who were tied to the land and required to farm for their lord.
  81. Seven liberal arts-
    Trivium & Quadrivium: rhetoric, logic, grammar & arithmetic,geometry, astronomy, and music. (299) They liberate the mind.
  82. Song of Roland -
    pg. 256 Piece of literature written around 1100. It was based on an earlier oral rendering dating from the time of the battle, around the year 800. In Charlemagne’s campaign with the Spaniards, his general was his nephew Roland.
  83. St. Crispin's Day speech -
    King Henry gave a passionate speech that excited and rededicated his soldiers so that they won the battle the next day at Agin court in northern France. It is recorded by Shakespeare in his play King Henry V. It was named in honor of the saint’s day on which is was given.
  84. St. Peter's Basilica- .
    a basilica in the vatican which is supposedly the burial site of st.peter and a famous place of pilgrimmage. The rebuilding of the basilica led to the sale of indulgences in Germany that led, in turn, to the actions of Martin Luther in challenging the Catholic Church.
  85. St-Denis –
    pg. 312: The Gothic architectural style began with the reconstruction ofthe abbey church of St-Denis, just outside of Paris. Abbot Suger, head of the church at St-Denis and an advisor to the crown, wanted to make it the most important religious site in Europe. St-Denis had relics from the Holy Land and Charlemagne was crowned there.
  86. Thomas Aquinas-
    pg 304-5 Became a Dominican monk against his family's wishes - student of Albertus Magnus and used the scholastic method - he reconciled the Catholic churches teachings with Aristotle's teachings - wrote Summa Theologica: combined Aristotelian teachings & Christian doctrine.
  87. Treaty of Tordesillas -
    pg. 369 Signed in the Spanish town of Tordesillas in 1494 by the Portuguese, the Spanish, and Pope Alexander VI. The Portuguese would now have possession of any unclaimed land that was 370 leagues wast of the Cape Verde Islands. This gave Portugal a major holding in Brazil.
  88. Vasco da Gama -
    pg. 365 To deal with the aftermath of Columbus’ trip, King Manuel of Portugal commissioned Vasco da Gama to round the Cape and sail to India. He knew that sailing directly down the African coast was slow and dangerous, due to shallow waters and unfavorable winds. He elected to use the westward trade wind, sailing far out into the Atlantic on a southwestern course and then use other trade winds, which blew eastward, to sail quickly back toward the tip of Africa, and then swing around the Cape. This worked reasonably well. Once he reached India, had to sneak away from the Arabs who already controlled the harbor. Journey took two full years. This was the longest duration of any voyage to that date.
  89. The Venerable Bede
  90. Three Estates
  91. Three-crop rotation system
  92. Tours and Poitiers
  93. vassals
  94. Virgil
  95. Windmills
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Creativity Final
MFG 201 Final Exam