1. PER
    Chemical Score
    • Protein efficiency ratio.
    • Gives an index of the nutritional value of a food.- determined by accounting for the % of the most limiting aa relative to a reference protein.
  2. Carbohydrates
    • Used as a source of energy.
    • Nutrient CHO- sugars such as glucose and sucrose Glucose and fructose) and lactose (Galactose and glucose)
    • Starches, including dextrins (complex CHO)
    • Glycogen, the end product of CHO digestion. Glucose in the body
  3. Respiration
    Glucose + oxygen--> energy + CO2 + water
  4. Structural CHO
    • Fiber, (bran- cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin)
    • Pectin- a structural CHO in fruits. Partly digestible. Holds water together. When fruit ripens, pectin breaks down.
  5. Fats or Lipids
    • One gram of fat yields 9 kCal.
    • One gram of CHO yields 4 Kcal
    • CHOs and fats are interchangeable as fuel foods.
    • Saturated- no double bonds.
    • Solids at room temp or oils at rooms temp
    • Some fatty acids are essential - linoleic and linolenic acids
    • Often found in the form of triglycerides
    • glycerin + 3 fatty acids
  6. Micro-nutrients
    • Vitamins and minerals essential to the body.
    • There are water-soluble and fat-soluble (DEAK)
    • Micronutrients are used for enzymatic processes
    • (Calcium in blood clotting)
    • for aiding in tissue and organ maintenance
    • (Vitamin E for anti-oxidant protection)
    • and for proper functioning of organs and glands
    • (Iodine for the thyroid gland)
  7. What are some of the diseases brought on by nutritional deficiency?
    • Scurvey- vitamin C- loss of teeth hemorrhagic skin
    • Rickets- vitamin D and calcium- weak bones distorted ribs
    • Pellagra- Niacin, B5- Skin rash, bloody diarrhea, mental disorder
    • Anemia- Iron- paleness of skin, short of breath, low hemoglobin
  8. Bacteria
    • 1 micrometer is size
    • Reproduce by binary fission- 1-->2-->4-->16
    • Rapid reproduction, dividing every 20 min
    • Some have ability to form spores (dormant form of organism, that have a coating similar to a seed) that are resistant to environmental stress : freezing, radiation, acid
  9. Bacteria
    • Spores will not grow in high acid or low water activity (Aw) conditions.
    • Some species are motile, while others are not.
    • Some species are considered beneficial- living on our body. We get ill when an imbalance occurs.
    • Some are pathogenic.
    • Acetobacter makes vinegar (not beneficial for wine makers though)
    • Salmonella makes you sick
  10. Yeast
    • Average size is 10X bigger than bacteria. from 1-10 micrometers.
    • Reproduce mostly by budding, fission or by spore formation
    • Some species produce spores, some do not. This can be sexual or asexual reproduction
    • Non-motile
    • Single celled or multicellular and Eukaryotic
  11. Mold
    • Generally not heat resistant
    • More resistant to highly acidic or low water activity (Aw) conditions (Compared to bacteria and yeast)
    • Reproduce by sporulation, can be asexual or sexual
    • Multi cellular
    • Strict Aerobes- require oxygen. Grow on surface of foods
  12. Intrinsic Growth Parameters
    • pH
    • Moisture Content
    • Nutrient Content
    • Antimicrobial Constituents
    • Biological Structures
  13. pH
    • Most microbes grow best at pH values around 7.0 which is neutral
    • Most fruit has lower pH than veggies thus molds tends to spoil fruit and bacteria spoil veggies
    • Some foods tend to resist changes in pH and are said to have buffering capacity
    • Adjustments in pH can help preserve food
    • Olives are basic, but we process them
    • Most food is acidic
  14. Moisture Content
    • Drying is one of the oldest preservation techniques where moisture as a nutrient is removed from food
    • Water requirements of MOs should be expressed in terms of water activity (Aw) in the food environment
    • The Aw of most fresh foods is above .99
    • Several preservation methods also change the Aw of the food:
    • Salting, adding sugar to fruit to make preserves, using additives or ingredients as humectants
  15. Intermediate Moisture Foods (IMF)
    • Foods that are intermediate moisture range but have prolonged shelf-life because they contain water-binding agents, or humectants
    • Humectants- chemical compounds that bind to and absorb water consequently lowering the Aw. Ex: Glycerol, sorbitol, other sugars, propylene glycol
  16. Microorganisms require:
    • Water
    • Energy Source- sugars alcohols or amino acids
    • Nitrogen source- primary is amino acids (proteins)
    • Vitamins and related growth factors
    • Minerals
  17. Antimicrobial Constituents
    • Lactenin in fresh milk designated an anticoliform factor
    • Lactoperoxidase in raw milk effective against some streptococci
    • Lysozyme in egg white and tears
    • Benzoic acid in cranberries
    • Lipids and essential oils
  18. Biological Structures
    • Skin on fruit- prevents moisture loss and insect entry
    • Shell on nuts
    • Hides of animal
    • Outer shell and membranes of eggs
  19. Extrinsic Growth Parameters
    • -Temperature of storage
    • Thermophilic range- 110-160 F optimum 131-151
    • Mesophilic range- 70-110 F optimum 95-98
    • Psychrophilic (Refridge) range- 45-86 F optimum 68- 77 F
    • - Relative Humidity of environment (High humidity= foods pick up moisture)
    • - Presence and concentration of gases (Packaging)
  20. OSHA
    Occupational Safety and Health Administration
  21. Microorganism Spoilage in Foods
    • MOs are interested in reproducing themselves.
    • Geometric progression is unlike enzymatic or oxidative spoliage which is linear because the reagents are fixed.
    • By-products are excreted from the MO cells where they can cause spoilage or perhaps a desired change
    • These by-products can accumulate rapidly bc of rapid growth
    • The growth requirements of MOs both intrinsic and extrinsic, determine what foods they are going to spoil
  22. Beneficial Microorganisms
    MOs can be beneficial by the by products they produce

    • Vitamins K and B produced by intestinal bacteria
    • Flavor compounds like diacetyl produced by lactic acid bacteria
    • Pigments like orange pigment produced by yeasts
  23. Food Fermintations
    • Food fermentations can be processes that use MO to produce a desirable effect in foods.
    • A fermentation is the metabolic process in which the CHOs and related compounds are oxidized with the release of energy in the absence of any external electron acceptors (O2) (anaerobically)
  24. Food Fermentation
    • Potential problems:
    • Growth of undesirable MOs
    • Phage (virus) Growth
    • Antibiotic or antimicrobic production
    • All can result in inhibition of the desired culture
    • Fermentations must be carried out under strict QC. Good sanitation is desired
  25. Heterofermentative MO
    • Produces acid (lactic) or R-OH and gas (CO2)
    • EX bakery products, alcoholic beverages
  26. Homofermentative MO
    • produces only acid
    • EX yogurt, buttermilk
  27. Foodborne Disease
    • Caused by:
    • Several species of bacteria
    • some viruses
    • parasites
    • amoebas
    • other biological agents (Mad Cow)
    • chemical agents
  28. Food poisoning
    Food Borne Illness
    • Pathogenic MO's cause food-borne illness
    • Food poisoning is a common term used to describe two types of food-caused sickness
    • Food intoxication
    • Food infection
  29. Food Intoxication
    • occurs when MO's in the infected food grow and produce the toxin
    • onset of symptoms are usually quick 2-8 hours after ingestion
    • it is the toxin that gets you ill
    • EX: Staphylococcus, Clostridium botulinum, C. perfringens, bacillus cereus, Aflatoxin, shellfish poisoning.
  30. Food Infection
    • Caused by the ingestion of sufficiently high numbers of a pathogenic MO. The MO invades cells.
    • The pathogen grows in the human body rather than in the food.
    • Onset of symptoms is usually longer than for food intoxication- 24 hours or more after ingestion
    • EX: Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia, Yersinia, Campylobacter, Vibrio
  31. Salmonella- Salmonellosis
    • Non spore forming, rod shaped, motile, facultative anaerobes
    • Not heat resistant
    • Optimum growth temp= 37 C, body temp
    • Growth range- 4-47 C
    • Usually ingestion of contaminated shellfish, eggs, milk, raw and cooked meats
  32. Shigella - Shigellosis
    • Non-spore forming, rod shaped, non motile, facultative anaerobe, requires very few MOs for infection.
    • 10 species
    • 4 to 7 day on set
    • Associated with meats, shellfish, salads
    • Symptoms are similar to bad salmonella
  33. Ecoli
    • Opportunistic pathogen = given the opportunity it can cause illness. most bacteria fall into this category.
    • Traveler's Diarrhea
    • Onset usually 24 hours after ingestion
    • Fatalities are rare
    • Mesophile with optimum temp= 37 C
  34. Yersinia
    • Rare food infection
    • Cousin of the causative agent or etiological agent of bubonic plague- yersinia pestis
    • Organism is a psychrotroph and found in beef, oyster, mussels and river water
  35. Vibrio
    • Associated with seafood or water, esp raw seafood. The sea animals are always filtering water and they pick up MOs and they build up.
    • Cholera comes mainly from contaminated water supplies and is endemic in mainland Asia and pacific rim
    • Mildly halophilic (loves salt), mesophilic, facultative anaerobe. Rod shaped, non spore forming
  36. Listeria Monocytogenes
    • Usually infects children or elders
    • Affects the central nervous system- meningitis. May cause "flu-like" symptoms, spontaneous abortions, or infectious mononucleosis.
    • Very hardy; cold and salt tolerant.
  37. Campylobacter Jejuni
    • 50% of water samples (rivers, lakes, and estuaries in UK) tested have this MO.
    • Today, thought to be more predominant than salmonellosis or shigellosis.
    • Associated with raw clams, poultry, pork, beef, and raw milk.
    • Heat sensative, mesophilic and microaerophilic.
  38. Sanitation in the Home
    • Meat, eggs, poultry, and fish should be held at safe temperatures avoiding the danger zone - 40-140 F
    • Use 50 ppm chlorine (hypochlorite) for sanitizing.
    • 100ppm for critical areas
  39. CDC
    Center for Disease Control and Prevention
  40. CFSAN
    Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
  41. MMWR
    Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
  42. Aceptic
    Free of Pathogens
  43. HACCP
    • Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System
    • A system developed to ensure the safety of foods.
    • HACCP is widely accepted and recommend for all aspects of the food industry.
    • Currently HACCP is mandated as necessary for the seafood, meat, poultry and juice industries.
  44. HACCP Seven Steps
    • -Asses the potential hazards
    • -Determine the CCPs where controls are necessary to eliminate or reduce hazards
    • - Establish requirements and parameters to be met at each CCP
    • - Establish procedures to monitor each CCP
    • - Establish corrective actions if a deviation occur at a CCP
    • - Establish procedures for verification that the HACCP plan is working effectively
    • - Establish record-keeping procedures
  45. Clorox Video
    • Estimated that there are 40-80 million cases of foodborne illness in the US each year.
    • $74,000 in expenses per case to recover from a foodborne illness.
    • Protein rich foods are the most common cause.
    • Salmonella (infection) and stapylococcal food poisoning are the most common.
    • People may be carriers of Staph on or in the nose throat and hands.
    • 25% of the cases are caused by poor personal hygiene Heat leftovers and poultry to 165 F
  46. Most Commonly Used FDA Approved Chemical Sanitizers
    • Hypochlorite- Chlorine 50 ppm, 10 seconds for sanitizing, corrosive to steel, aluminum, silver plate utensils.
    • Iodophor- Iodine 12.5 ppm, 30 seconds for sanitizing, noncorrosive, looses amber color as it weakens
    • Quarternary Ammonium, 200ppm, 30 seconds for sanitizing, noncorrosive
  47. Food Regulation and Regulatory Agencies
    • It is a proper function of our govt to determine the wholesomeness and purity of a food protecting the consumer from economic fraud and health hazards.
    • Laws require a basic need for implementation and public support.
    • 3 Regulatory agencies have enforcement authority:
    • - Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
    • - Meat Inspection Division*
    • - Meat Inspection Service *
    • * apart of the food safety inspection service (FSIS) and US Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  48. USDA

    United States Department of Agriculture

    Food Safety Inspection Service
  49. HUS
    • Hemolytic- Uremic Syndrome
    • Found in Ecoli Patients 0157: H7
  50. FDC
    • Food Drug and Cosmetic Act, 1938
    • Established the FDA as an agency
    • Covered most things except food additives
  51. The Food Additives Amendment to the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act
    • 1958
    • Includes the "Delany Clause" for carcinogenic materials.
    • Introduced "GRAS" status
  52. NLEA
    • Nutrition Labeling Education Act, 1990
    • Went into full effect in 1994
  53. FALCPA
    • Food Allergen Consumer Protection Act
    • 2004, but goes into effect in 2006
    • Said items such as soy, wheat, egg, peanuts, treenuts, shellfish, and dairy had to be on the labels
  54. FAAN

    • The Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network
    • A well recognized consumer education organization

    • International Food Information Council Foundation
    • Mission to communicate science-based information on food and safety and nutrition to health and nutrition professionals and others
  55. Adulteration
    • A food is adultered if
    • It is filthy, putrid or decomposed
    • It is produced under unsanitary conditions
    • It contains any substance deleterious to health
    • Chemical- lead, pesticides
    • Biological- MOs, ecoli
    • Physical- wood, bone, fragments
  56. Misbranded
    • A food is misbranded if
    • It has a standard of identity and fails to meet the standard
    • It is wrongly labeled
    • It fails to meet the standard for fill of container
  57. Environmental Protection Agency
    • EPA
    • Authorizes and regulated the use of pesticides. Monitors compliance and provides technical assistance to states
  58. All labels must bear:
    • -The name of the product
    • - Net contents (in both common and metric units) or net weight, including liquid
    • - Name and address of manufacturer, packer, or distributor
    • Many foods are covered by standards of identiy
    • - ice cream must have > 10% butterfat
  59. Ingredients
    • All ingredients must be listed- in order from most predominant by weight to least.
    • Any additive, colorant, allergen, or protein hydrolysates must be listed
    • Foods containing juice require percentage of total juice.
  60. PKU
    • Phenylketonuria
    • a genetic recessive disorder where babies cant break down an amino acid called phenylalanine.
    • They grow out of it by adolescenc.
  61. Enzyme Reactions
    • Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions
    • An enzyme reacts with a substrate but does not become part of the final product.
    • Enzymes are critical for life and cellular functions
    • All life depends on enzymes to convert food nutrients into a utilizable form
    • Enzymes are proteins.
    • Cofactors help the substrate reach the product
  62. Enzymes
    • Temperature sensitive
    • Has temp and pH optimum
    • -some enzymes are active at freezing temps
    • An enzyme may require a coenzyme or cofactor to function- this is the role of many micro nutrients
    • Enzymes are classified in several ways, one of which is by substrate. Proteases act on proteins ect....
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