What is genomics?
a scientific field involving the determination of content, organization and evolution of genomes of different organisms
What are the two major maps that determine gene location in a genome?
- Genetic linkage- relative arrangement and approximate distance
- Physical- physical location of gene on chromosome
What is the lowest and highest resolution of maps?
- Genetic map
- the actual DNA sequence
How many genes does the human genome project contain?
What is the smallest and largest genome?
Why decode nonhuman genome?
To provide information about gene organization, function, evolution.
What functions of the human genome have yet to be understood?
- Exact location and function of all genes
- How genes are regulated
- How chromosomes are organized
- Roles for DNA that dont code protein
- How proteins interact with each other
What is a proteome?
A protein complement of a genome
What is proteomics?
- Study the function and regulation of the protein
- Expression and identification of proteins
- How proteins interact with each other in the cells
- listing proteins in a database
What is pharmacogenomics?
Studies how the genome is affect by and responds to different drugs
What is bioinformatics?
Incorporates biology, computer science, and information technology
What are the 2 major classes of repetitive DNA?
- Tandemly repetitive sequences of satellite DNA 10%
- Interspersed repetitive DNA 5-20% (SINES AND LINES)
What are microsatellites?
- Short Tandem Repeats
- very short, with repeated sequences of about 2-5 bp
What are minisatellites?
- Located near the ends of chromosomes
What are macrosatellites?
- Located near centromeres and telomeres
- Megabases in length.
- Length makes them subject to breakage
Because humans are diploid organisms, each individual has 2 alleles per locus. Individuals could be which 2 things?
- Homozygous- 2 copies of same overall length
- Heterozygous- 2 copies of different overall length
What are variable number of Tandem Repeats (VNTRs)?
- Made of short sequence
- the # of times the core sequence is repeated is variable
Why are Multilocus Minisatellites VNTR more difficult to interpret than single-locus patterns?
- large # of bonds usually generated
- Incomplete cutting of DNA
- DNA degredation
- Low DNA recovery
- Identification problems
What are some potential problems with multiplexing that need to be overcome?
- Primers can sometime complex with multiple loci
- Locus may not amplify as well
- Optimization of PCR conditions can present a challenge
Why is STR-based DNA typing the method of choice?
- much less labor intensive
- can use badly degraded DNA
- Very small amounts of DNA are required
- Mixed DNA samples can be resolved;-0p
What are the methods of DNA Profiling?
- Southern blot hybridization
- Restriction enzyme digestion
- Gel electrophoresis
What are the 2 major challenges in forensic analysis?
- Calculate probability of coincidental matches by comparing with a reference population
- Find the criteria for determining what constitutes a relevant reference population
What is forensic Archaeology?
The use of forensic science to examine and make conclusions about archaeological discoveries