General Biology 1

  1. Meiosis
    Halves the Chromosome Number, used only for sexual reproduction
  2. haploid gametes
    1 copy of each chromosome
  3. Gametes
    Sperm & Egg fuse in fertilization to form diploid zygote
  4. Humans have how many different types of chromosomes?
  5. Diploid cells
    have two of each type
  6. Homologous Chromosomes
    Same length, centromeres positioned in the same place, one from father, one from mother(paternal/maternal homolog), similar banding patterns when stained, genes controll same trait at same position
  7. Alleles
    alternate forms of a gene
  8. Homologous Chromosome Pairs
    Many genes exist in several variant forms in a large population & Homologous copies of a gene may encode identical or differing genetic information
  9. An individual may have:
    Identical alleles for a specific gene on both homologs (homozygous for the trait), or A maternal allele that differs from the corresponding paternal allele (heterozygous for the trait)
  10. Meiosis I
    Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I, Cytokinesis, Interkinesis
  11. Prophase I
    • Chromosomes:
    • Internally duplicate
    • Pair up end to end
  12. Metaphase I
    Line up on the Metaphase plate
  13. Anaphase I
    Homologous chromosomes split and move toward opposite poles
  14. Telophase I
    Daughter Cells have one chromosome from each homolog
  15. Cytokinesis I
    • 2 Daughter Cells
    • Haploid
  16. Interkinesis
    • Interphase?
    • No replication of DNA
  17. Crossing Over
    Exchange of genetic material between non sister chromatids during Meiosis I
  18. Independent Assortment
    • Seperation of homologs on the Metaphase plate is random
    • Causes random mixing
  19. Fertalization
    Chromosomes from each parent cell are combined
  20. Significance of Genetic Variation
    offspring adapt to their environment over time
  21. Meiosis II
    same as Meiosis I: Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II, Cytokinesis II
  22. Prophase II
    chromosomes condense
  23. Metaphase II
    align at metaphase plate
  24. Anaphase II
    • Centromeres dissappear
    • Sister chromatids seperate
  25. Telophase II & Cytokinesis II
    • 4 haploid cells
    • All genetically unique
  26. Gametogenesis
    production of gamets
  27. Spermatogenisis
    • production of sperm
    • all four cells become sperm
  28. Oogenisis
    • only 1 out of 4 nuclei get cytoplasm
    • that one becomes the egg
    • others wither away as polar bodies
  29. Euploid
    correct number of chromosomes for the species
  30. Aneuploid
    incorrect number of chromosomes for the species
  31. Aneuploid is the result of:
    incorrect chromosome seperation
  32. Monosomy
    only one of a particular type of chromosome
  33. Trisomy
    • Three of a particular chromosome
    • EX: Down Syndrome
  34. Changes in Sex Chromosomes can be the result of:
    • Inheriting too many/too few X or Y chromosomes
    • non-disjunction during Oogenisis or Spermatogenisis
    • Deletions
    • Duplications
    • Translocations
    • Inversion
  35. Monohybrid Cross
    Only one gene is different between the two subjects being crossed
  36. Law of Segregation
    • Alleles seperate during gamete formation
    • Each gamete contains only one allele from each pair
    • Fertalization gives the offspring 2 alleles for each trait
  37. Each trait is controlled by how many alleles?
  38. Homozygous
    Identical alleles
  39. Heterozygous
    Different alleles
  40. Genotype
    Literal genetic make up of the trait
  41. Phenotype
    The way the genetic makeup of a trait is expressed
  42. Punnett Square
    Allows us to predict the genotypes and phenotypes of offspring
  43. Autosomal Disorders
    Medical conditions caused by mutations or mistakes on chromosomes inherited from parents other than problems associated with sex (XY) chromosomes
  44. Autosomal Dominant
    • AA = has the disorder
    • Aa = has the disorder
    • aa = does not have the disorder
  45. Autosomal Recessive
    • AA = does not have the disorder
    • Aa = carrier (able to pass on the disease)
    • aa = has the disorder
  46. Incomplete Dominance
    EX: Cross a red and white flower and end up with a pink flower
  47. Multiple Allilic Traits
    EX: Blood Type
  48. Codominance
    More than one allele is fully expressed
  49. Pleiotrophy
    A single mutant gene affects 2 or more traits that seem to be unrelated
  50. X-Linked Diseases
    Found in males (XY) Because they do not have an extra X to make up for the mistake on the first X
  51. Fredrick Griffith
    found that bacteria cells can pass on genetic material even after the bacteria cell is dead
  52. DNA structure
    • 4 nuleotides
    • 2 Purine bases:Adeniene & Guanine
    • 2 Pyramidine bases: Tymine & Cytosine
  53. Amounts of A, G, T, C in individuals ________.
    differs except in identical twins
  54. Watson and Crick Model
    • double helix (twisted ladder)
    • sugar phosphate backbone
    • hydrogen bonded bases make up rungs
  55. DNA Replication (Eukaryotic)
    • each new strand has one original strand and one new strand
    • begins at numerous points
    • requires DNA polymerase
    • happens at the replication fork
  56. Steps of DNA Replication (Eukaryotic)
    • 1. Old DNA unwinds
    • 2. Complementary bases are paired
    • 3. Bases joined to form the backbone
  57. DNA Replication (Prokaryotic)
    • in a loop
    • produces 2 identical circles
    • quick--->20 minutes
  58. Polypeptide
    • Made up of amino acids
    • Makes up protiens
    • Proteins carry out functions of a cell
  59. Gene
    A segment of DNA that specifies the sequence of amino acids of a polypeptide
  60. Central Dogma
    DNA (which is always being replicated) goes through transcription to become RNA which is then translated into protein
  61. RNA types
    Uracil, Adenine, Cytocine, Guanine
  62. Messenger RNA
    Takes genetic info from DNA to Ribosomes
  63. Ribosomal RNA
    Makes up ribosomes that read the mRNA
  64. Transfer RNA
    Transfers appropriate amino acid to ribosome when instructed
  65. Codons
    sequence of 3 bases found on the DNA
  66. Properties of the Genetic Code
    • Universal: all organisms code the same way
    • Degenerate: more than one codon=same amino acid
    • Ambiguous: codon only codes for one amino acid
    • Contains start and stop codons
  67. Cytocine binds with ________.
  68. Guanine binds with __________.
  69. Tymine binds with ____________.
  70. Adenine binds with ___________.
  71. Sythesis occurs in what order?
    5' to 3'
  72. What is found on the 5' end of the mRNA?
    Guanine cap
  73. What is found on the 3' end of the mRNA?
    adenine tail
  74. Introns
    sections of mRNA that contain genes that will not be expressed
  75. Exons
    sections of mRNA that will be expressed in the final product
  76. RNA splicing means what?
    splicing out the unneeded introns and putting back together the exons
  77. Why are Introns included in mRNA?
    • allows for alternate combinations of Exons
    • allows for regulation of gene expression
  78. rRNA Binding sites
    • Amino acid site (accepts amino acids)
    • Exit site (amino acids are ejected here)
    • Peptide site (holds everything together)
  79. Stages of Translation
    • Initiation
    • Elongation
    • Termination
  80. Initiation
    • Small ribosomal subunit attaches to mRNA transcript
    • Initiator tRNA attaches to P site
    • Large ribosomal subunit attaches to what is already there
  81. Elongation
    amino acids are brought in and added to the polypeptide by tRNA who reads the mRNA transcript in order to pick out the correct amino acid
  82. Termination
    • tRNA reads the stop codon
    • the last amino acid is added and the spent tRNA is sent to the E site
    • Polypeptide released, and ribosome falls apart
  83. Histones
    DNA wound around this at intervals creates chromosomes
  84. Population
    All the members of a specific species occupying a particular area at the same time
  85. Population Genetics
    study of diversity in terms of allele differences
  86. Microevolution
    Pertains to changes found within a population
  87. Gene Pool
    All the genes of the individuals of a population
  88. Gene pools can be described in terms of __________.
    • genotype frequencies
    • allele frequencies
  89. Bottleneck Effect
    A random event keeps the majority of individuals from enterering the next generation
  90. Founders Effect
    When a new population is started from just a few individuals rare alleles will either occur at a higher frequency or be absent
  91. Natural Selection
    Alleles that will allow for a stronger next generation take presidence over those that would not
  92. Natural Selection requires:
    • Variation
    • Inheritance
    • Differential Adaptability
    • Differential Reproduction
  93. Variation
    members of a population differ from one another
  94. Inheritance
    many differences are heritable genetic differences
  95. Differential Adaptability
    Some differences provide survival
  96. Differential Reproduction
    some differences affect the likelihood of successful reproduction
  97. Natural Selection results in:
    • change in frequencies in the gene pool
    • improved fitness of the possibility
    • microevolution
  98. Good Genes Hypothesis
    females mate with a male who will pass on traits that will improve chances for offspring survival
  99. Runaway Hypothesis
    females choose mates based on male appearance
  100. Cost benifit analysis
    "Is it benificial to mate if you have to compete?"
  101. Dominance Hierarchy
    • determines which males have the opprotunity to mate and with which females
    • sets up the line of defense of the females and territory
Card Set
General Biology 1
General Biology 1 Final Exam