Lewis ch 44-48 vocab

  1. acute pancreatitis
    an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas caused by autodigestion and marked by symptoms of acute abdomen and escape of pancreatic enzymes into the pancreatic tissues.
  2. acute renal failure
    clinical syndrome characterized by a rapid decline in renal function with progressive azotemia and increasing levels of serum creatinine.
  3. acute tubular necrosis (ATN)
    a type of intrarenal acute renal failure affecting the renal tubules caused by renal ischemia and nephrotoxic injury.
  4. aldosterone
    a potent mineralocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex that maintains extracellular fluid volume.
  5. antidiuretic hormone
    a hormone released from the posterior pituitary gland that regulates fluid volume by stimulating reabsorption of water in the renal tubules.
  6. ascites
    an abnormal intraperitoneal accumulation of a fluid containing large amounts of protein and electrolytes as a result of portal hypertension.
  7. asterixis
    flapping tremor (liver flap) commonly affecting the arms and hands that is a manifestation of hepatic encephalopathy.
  8. automated peritoneal dialysis (APD)
    dialysis machine that controls the fill, dwell, and drain phases, and cycles four to eight exchanges per night with 1 to 2 hours per exchange.
  9. azotemia
    an accumulation of nitrogenous waste products, such as blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine.
  10. calcitonin
    a hormone produced by the thyroid gland in response to high circulating calcium levels; acts to reduce the blood level of calcium and to inhibit bone resorption.
  11. calculus
    an abnormal stone formed in body tissues by an accumulation of mineral salts.
  12. catecholamines
    sympathomimetic compounds composed of a catechol molecule and an amine from the amino acid tyrosine; include epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
  13. cholecystitis
    inflammation of the gallbladder.
  14. cholelithiasis
    stones in the gallbladder.
  15. chronic kidney disease
    the presence of kidney damage for at least 3 months with functional or structural abnormalities, with or without decreased glomerular filtration rate; can also be a glomerular filtration rate of < 60 ml/min/1.732m2for more than 3 months, with or without damage to the kidney.
  16. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    progressive destruction of the pancreas with fibrotic replacement of pancreatic tissue.
  17. cirrhosis
    chronic progressive disease of the liver characterized by extensive degeneration and destruction of the liver parenchymal cells.
  18. continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)
    dialysis carried out manually by exchanging 1.5 to 3 L of peritoneal dialysate usually four times daily with dwell times of 4 to 10 hours; an indwelling catheter permits fluid to drain into and out of the peritoneal cavity by gravity.
  19. continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT)
    means by which solutes and fluids can be removed slowly and continuously in the hemodynamically unstable patient; usually used to treat acute renal failure.
  20. corticosteroid
    any one of the glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, or androgen hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex that influence or control key processes of the body.
  21. cortisol
    the most abundant and potent glucocorticoid produced by the adrenal gland.
  22. costovertebral angle
    one of two angles that outline a space over the kidneys that is formed by the rib cage and the vertebral column.
  23. creatinine
    waste product produced by muscle breakdown commonly found in blood, urine, and muscle tissue; measured in blood and urine tests as an indicator of kidney function.
  24. cystitis
    an inflammatory condition of the urinary bladder, characterized by pain, urgency and frequency of urination, and hematuria.
  25. dialysis
    technique in which substances move from the blood through a semipermeable membrane and into a dialysis solution; used to correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances and to remove waste products in renal failure.
  26. end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
    last stage of kidney disease occurring when the GFR is less than 5% to 10% of normal or when creatinine clearances are less than 15 ml/min.
  27. esophageal varices
    distended, tortuous, fragile veins at the lower end of the esophagus that result from portal hypertension.
  28. fulminant hepatic failure
    a clinical syndrome characterized by severe impairment of liver function associated with hepatic encephalopathy; also referred to as acute liver failure.
  29. gastric varices
    a complex of tortuous veins located in the upper portion (cardia, fundus) of the stomach.
  30. glomerular filtration rate
    the amount of blood filtered by the glomeruli in a given time; average is 125 ml/min with 1 ml/min excreted as urine.
  31. glomerulonephritis
    an immune-related inflammation of the glomeruli characterized by proteinuria, hematuria, decreased urine production, and edema.
  32. glomerulus
    component of the nephron that is a tuft of up to 50 capillaries where blood is filtered across the semipermeable membrane into Bowman's capsule.
  33. glucagon
    a hormone synthesized and released from pancreatic α-cells in response to low levels of blood glucose, protein ingestion, and exercise.
  34. Goodpasture syndrome
    an example of cytotoxic (type II) autoimmune disease, characterized by the presence of circulating antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane and alveolar basement membrane, usually associated with glomerulonephritis and characterized by a cough with hemoptysis, dyspnea, anemia, and progressive renal failure.
  35. growth hormone
    an anterior pituitary hormone that affects the growth and development of skeletal muscles and long bones affecting a person's size and height.
  36. hemodialysis
    dialysis that uses an artificial membrane (usually made of cellulose-based or synthetic materials) as the semipermeable membrane through which the patient's blood circulates; impurities or wastes are removed from the blood.
  37. hepatic encephalopathy
    changes in neurologic and mental function resulting from high levels of ammonia in the blood that a damaged liver cannot detoxify.
  38. hepatitis
    inflammation of the liver.
  39. hepatorenal syndrome
    a serious complication of cirrhosis characterized by functional renal failure with advancing azotemia, oliguria, and intractable ascites.
  40. hormone
    a chemical substance synthesized by a specific organ or tissue and secreted directly into the blood, where it is circulated to specific target tissues.
  41. hydronephrosis
    dilation or enlargement of the renal pelvis and calyces resulting from obstruction in the lower urinary tract with backflow of urine to the kidney.
  42. hydroureter
    dilation of the renal pelvis caused by backflow of urine.
  43. ileal conduit
    most commonly performed incontinent urinary diversion procedure, in which ureters are implanted into part of ileum or colon that has been resected from intestinal tract and abdominal stoma is created.
  44. insulin
    an anabolic hormone secreted by the β-cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas that is the principal regulator of the metabolism and storage of ingested carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
  45. interstitial cystitis
    chronic, painful inflammatory disease of the bladder, believed to be associated with an autoimmune or allergic response, and characterized by severe bladder and pelvic pain, urinary frequency, and urgency.
  46. intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
    diagnostic study using an IV contrast medium that is excreted through the urinary system used to examine the structure and function of the urinary system.
  47. islets of Langerhans
    the hormone-secreting portion of the pancreas that includes α-, β-, and δ-cells that produce insulin, glucagon, and pancreatic polypeptide.
  48. jaundice
    symptom of yellowish discoloration of body tissues that results from an increased concentration of bilirubin in the blood.
  49. lithotripsy
    the use of sound waves to break renal stones into small particles that can be eliminated from the urinary tract.
  50. negative feedback
    a hormone regulating mechanism in which there is a decrease or increase in hormone synthesis and secretion in response to a stimulus.
  51. nephrolithiasis
    the formation of stones in the urinary tract.
  52. nephron
    the functional unit of the kidney.
  53. nephrosclerosis
    a vascular disease of the kidney characterized by sclerosis of the small arteries and arterioles of the kidney resulting in renal tissue necrosis.
  54. nephrotic syndrome
    an abnormal condition of the kidney characterized by peripheral edema, massive proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, and hypoalbuminemia; may occur in a severe primary form or secondary to many systemic diseases.
  55. nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    a group of disorders that is characterized by hepatic steatosis (accumulation of fat in the liver) that is not associated with other causes such as hepatitis, autoimmune disease, or alcohol.
  56. oliguria
    < 400 ml of urine in 24 hours.
  57. oxytocin
    a hormone that stimulates ejection of milk into mammary ducts and contraction of uterine smooth muscle.
  58. paracentesis
    a procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from a cavity of the body.
  59. parathyroid hormone
    a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that acts to maintain a constant concentration of calcium in the extracellular fluid; stimulates bone resorption.
  60. peritoneal dialysis
    dialysis with the use of the peritoneal membrane as the semipermeable membrane; performed to correct an imbalance of fluid or of electrolytes in the blood or to remove toxins, drugs, or other wastes normally excreted by the kidney.
  61. polycystic kidney disease
    a genetic kidney disorder in which the cortex and the medulla are filled with thin-walled cysts that enlarge and destroy surrounding tissue.
  62. portal hypertension
    increased venous pressure in the portal circulation caused by compression and destruction of the portal and hepatic veins and sinusoids resulting in splenomegaly, large collateral veins, ascites, systemic hypertension, and esophageal varices.
  63. pyelonephritis
    a diffuse pyogenic infection of the renal parenchyma and collecting system.
  64. renal arteriogram
    diagnostic study performed by injecting contrast media into a renal artery to visualize the renal blood vessels.
  65. renal artery stenosis
    a partial occlusion of one or both renal arteries and their major branches; a major cause of abrupt onset hypertension.
  66. renal biopsy
    procedure to obtain renal tissue for examination to determine renal disease; usually performed percutaneously with a biopsy needle.
  67. renal osteodystrophy
    syndrome of skeletal changes found in chronic kidney disease as a result of alterations in calcium and phosphate metabolism; characterized by uneven bone growth and demineralization.
  68. retrograde pyelogram
    radiologic technique for examining the structures of the collecting system of the kidneys that is especially useful in locating a urinary tract obstruction.
  69. spider angiomas
    small, dilated blood vessels with a bright-red center point the size of a pinhead from which small blood vessels radiate.
  70. stricture
    an abnormal temporary or permanent narrowing of the lumen of a hollow organ, such as the esophagus, pylorus of the stomach, ureter, or urethra; caused by inflammation, external pressure, or scarring.
  71. target tissue
    the body tissue or organ that the hormone affects.
  72. thyroxine (T4)
    the most abundant thyroid hormone that influences metabolic rate; accounts for 90% of thyroid hormone produced by the thyroid gland; converted to T3 in the periphery.
  73. triiodothyronine (T3)
    hormone produced by the thyroid gland; regulates growth and development, helps control metabolism and body temperature, and acts to inhibit the secretion of thyrotropin by the pituitary gland.
  74. tropic hormone
    a hormone secreted by one gland that stimulates another gland to synthesize and secrete its hormones (i.e., thyrotropin from the anterior pituitary gland stimulates the thyroid gland to synthesize and secrete thyroid hormones).
  75. uremia
    the presence of excessive amounts of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in the blood; renal function declines to the point that symptoms develop in multiple body systems.
  76. urethritis
    inflammation of the urethra.
  77. urinalysis
    analysis of urine for color, pH, specific gravity, osmolality, and normal and abnormal constituents.
  78. urinary incontinence
    an uncontrolled leakage of urine as a result of cerebral clouding and/or physical factors that make it difficult to get to the bathroom facilities on time.
  79. urinary retention
    the inability to empty the bladder despite micturition or the accumulation of urine in the bladder because of an inability to urinate.
  80. urosepsis
    urinary tract infection that has spread into the systemic circulation; life-threatening condition requiring emergency treatment.
Card Set
Lewis ch 44-48 vocab
Lewis ch 44-48 vocab