Methods & Techniques in Counseling Test #3

  1. Contrast reframing meaning and reframing context.
    • Reframing meaning challenges the meaning that the client has assigned to the perceived problem by providing alternative ways to view the issue.
    • Chp 12, pg 347-348
    • Reframing context is based on the assumption that many behaviors are useful in some but not all contexts or conditions. It helps the client to explore and decide when, where, and with whom a given behavior is appropriate.
    • Chp 12, pg350
  2. Why is repetition important when applying some of the renaming steps?
    • Repetition is designed to embody new perceptual responses so that the client gradually experiences a felt sense of relief, strength, or optimism.
    • Chp 12, bottom of pg 349-350
  3. What considerations are necessary for reframing to be effective?
    • Alternative perceptions must be acceptable to the client.
    • All reframes should be tailored to the client’s values, style, and socio-cultural context.
    • All reframes must fit the client’s experience and model of his or her world.
    • Chp 12, pg 349
  4. What is cognitive modeling and what are some of the benefits?
    • Cognitive modeling is a procedure in which practitioners show clients what to say to themselves while performing a task. The benefits are that it can be applied to a variety of client concerns and used with very diverse populations.
    • Chapter 12, page 351
  5. Please list 3 of the 7 components of cognitive modeling and self-instructional training.
    • Treatment rational
    • Overt self-guidance
    • Covert self-guidance
    • Chapter 12, page 353
  6. What is the purpose of doing overt self-guidance?
    • The purpose of this step is to have the client practice the kind of self-talk that will strengthen his or her attention to the demands of the task and will minimize outside distractions.
    • Chapter 12, page 355
  7. After treatment rationale and problem orientation, what should occur in the problem solving process?
    • The problem must be identified and goals set
    • Brainstorm different ways to solve problem
    • Evaluate each option and select solution plan
    • Implement the solution
    • Chapter 12, Pg. 364
  8. Discuss ONE of the FIVE guidelines for using cognitive restructuring with diverse groups of clients.
    • Be very careful about the language that you use when describing client cognitions.
    • Chapter 13, pg. 387
  9. Once the treatment rationale has been given, and you have identified the client’s thoughts in problem situations, what else needs to occur in cognitive restructuring (aside from homework and follow-up)?
    • Introduction and practice of coping skills
    • Shifting from self-defeating to coping thoughts
    • Introduction and practice of reinforcing self-statements
    • Chapter 13, pg. 387-388
  10. What are our schemas?
    • Schemas are a mental representation of our experiences that help interpret and organize information. They are stored in memory and activated to help us interpret new experiences.
    • Chpt. 13, p. 391, Identifying Client Schemas Underlying Distorted Thoughts (top left)
  11. Are schemas that are resistant to challenge and change a good thing?
    • Yes. This stability is a strength. It is part of what helps us all retain a sense of coherence, understandability, and predictability of ourselves, others, and the world. However, it means that the client and helper are working against the grain to target and reconstruct these beliefs and habits.
    • Chpt. 13, p. 392, Identifying Client Schemas Underlying Distorted Thoughts (mid page, 1st column)
  12. What does schema assessment consist of?
    • Focused review of the client’s history to link past experiences to current problems through maladaptive schemas.
    • A questionnaire designed to assess schemas
    • An experiential component to trigger schemas- activate them from long-term memory into active working memory.
    • Chpt. 13, p. 392, Identifying Client Schemas Underlying Distorted Thoughts (mid page, 1st column)
  13. What are the 4 types of coping statements?
    • 1) Situational coping statements
    • 2) Task-oriented coping statements
    • 3) Statements to cope with being overwhelmed
    • 4) Positive self-statements
    • Chp 13, pgs. 397-398
  14. What is the purpose of including positive self-statements in cognitive restructuring?
    • It helps the clients learn to praise or congratulate themselves for signs of progress since they can’t always depend on encouragement from someone else when confronted with a stressful situation.
    • Chp 13, pg. 399
  15. What are coping thoughts?
    • Coping thoughts help a client deal with or manage a situation, event, or person adequately.
    • Chp 13, pg. 398
  16. How does a counselor help a client overcome failure in the use of cognitive restructuring?
    • re-define goals
    • re-assess initial issue/coping statement
    • Encoding errors by the client will require a counselor to use such techniques as reframing, guided imagery
    • Chp 13, Page 400
  17. List the 6 clinical processes that acceptance and commitment therapy seeks to help clients with:
    • Acceptance
    • defusion
    • getting in contact with the present moment
    • notion of self as context
    • values
    • committed action
    • Chp 13, Page 405-406—words are italized
  18. What is the purpose of a follow-up session?
    • check homework log to make sure client is using their restructuring strategies and whether progress is being made
    • encourage using restructuring strategies to future stressful situations
    • Chp 13, Page 400, 2nd paragraph
  19. Why is diaphragmatic breathing a good tool for individuals to learn to use?
    • Diaphragmatic breathing can help individuals by assisting them to learn or reestablish effective breathing, thereby avoiding instances such as hyperventilation and fostering mental relaxation.
    • Ch. 14, bottom p. 41
  20. What should a helper consider when teaching an individual awareness orientation to breathing?
    • Helpers should consider the client’s age, gender, class, and ethnicity. Also the helper should determine if the client has any medical or physical condition that could make breathing exercises inappropriate.
    • Ch. 14, p 424
  21. What occurs during stress inoculation?
    • The client will learn, practice, and apply direct-action and cognitive coping skills to problem situations and potential problem situations.
    • Chapter 14, pg. 428
  22. Stress inoculation is an approach that teaches what two types of skills?
    • Both cognitive and physical coping skills
    • Chapter 14, pg. 427
  23. Eliot and Eisdorfer (1982) and Meichenbaum (1993) classify stressful events as an event that is time limited and not chronic, events that trigger a series of stressful reactions, chronic and intermittent, and chronic and continual events. Give one example of each type of event.
    • Time limited and not chronic – medical biopsy, surgery
    • Trigger a series of stressful reactions – divorce, death of loved one
    • Chronic and intermittent – athletic competitions, military combat
    • Chronic and continual – Chronic medical or mental illness, marital conflict
    • Chapter 14, pg. 428
  24. What steps are taken to help the client acquire direct-action strategies?
    • The helper first discusses and models possible action strategies.
    • The client selects some to use and practices them.
    • Chp 14, pg 431
  25. List three of the five direct-action coping strategies.
    • Palliative coping strategies
    • Mental relaxation methods
    • Physical relaxation methods
    • Chp 14, pg 431
  26. What are two of the four phases of cognitive coping?
    • Preparing for the situation
    • Confronting and handling the situation
    • Chp 14, pg 432
  27. What does the application phase of stress inoculation involve?
    • The application phase of stress inoculation involves modeling and rehearsing to provide the client with exposure to simulations of problems related to the situation.
    • Chp 14, pg 434
  28. How does the client benefit from role reversal when practicing coping application skills?
    • Role reversal helps with the client’s acquisition of coping strategies and bolsters the client’s self-efficacy.
    • Chp 14, pg 436
  29. What are the two ways in which a client can practice application of coping skills?
    • Clients can practice the application of coping skills in two ways: imagination and role play.
    • Chp 14, pg 436
  30. According to George, Larson, Koenig, and McCullough (2000) what are the 3 benefits of being associated with a religious practice?
    • Reduced onset of physical and mental illness
    • Reduced mortality
    • Likelihood of recovery from or adjustment to physical and mental illness
    • Chp 14, pg 439
  31. When working with spiritual values and interventions in psychotherapy, what might a counselor be aware of?
    • A counselor should be careful with professional, ethical, and legal issues when working with spiritual values and interventions in psychotherapy.
    • Chapter 14, p. 443
  32. Define what mediation is according to Fontana:
    • Mediation is keeping the mind alert and attentive, keeping the mind focused and concentrated, becoming aware of the world, becoming more human, and knowing where you are.
    • Chapter 15, p. 454-455
  33. How does the practice of mediation affect the body as a self-healing and self-regulating tool?
    • Mediation calms the body through relaxation responses and fixes the mind through dropping the anchor of attention.
    • Chapter 15, p. 455
  34. Describe ONE other type of mindfulness meditation in addition to breath meditation.
    • Sitting with sound from the environment, nature, or music and hearing them in the moment
    • Chapter 15, pg 459
  35. What is the purpose and goal of muscle relaxation?
    • It teaches a person to relax by becoming aware of the sensations of tensing and relaxing major muscle groups. The long term goal of muscle relaxation is for the body to monitor instantaneously all of its numerous control signals and to relive tensions automatically that are not desired.
    • Chapter 15, pg 463
  36. What are the effects of Muscle Relaxation related to?
    • Muscle relaxation effects are related to satisfactory problem assessment, client characteristics, and the helper’s ability to apply the procedure competently and confidently.
    • Chapter 15, p 465
  37. Why is homework an important factor in Muscle Relaxation therapy?
    • After several sessions of practice, the client can use these techniques on their own to alleviate stressors that cause their issue.
    • Chapter 15, p 468
  38. What issues is Muscle Relaxation commonly used to treat?
    • Muscle Relaxation is commonly used to treat anger, anxiety and fear.
    • Chapter 15, p 464 Box 15.2 and p 465
  39. Muscle Relaxation is NOT suitable for which type of clients?
    • Clients with generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, or a history of hyperventilation
    • Clients with muscular damage or muscular disability
    • Clients with severe trauma histories - they need to maintain some degree of vigilance in order to feel safe.
    • Chapter 15, p 469
  40. What are TWO variations of muscle relaxation?
    • Counting: Counting 1-10 to increase relaxation
    • Body Scan: Focus breaths on a certain region of the body
    • Chapter 15, p 470-471
Card Set
Methods & Techniques in Counseling Test #3
Test Questions for Test #3 in Methods & Techniques in Counseling (Chapters 12-15)