World Civilizations Final Test

  1. The Scottish Reformation (John Knox, theolgy, politics)
    • Student at St. Andrews
    • Flees to England; Anglican Clergy under Edward VI
    • Forced to flee under Bloody Mry
    • Goes to Geneva (meets Calvin)
    • Becomes convinced Calvinist, Presbyterian in structure
    • Returns to Scotland-locks horns with Mary, Queen of Scots (Cathoic Persecutor)
    • Scottish nobles side with Knox
    • Mary overthrown
    • Knox writes Scots Confession; Liturgy of worship; but alienates Elizabeth I
    • Scottish "Kirk" becomes Presbyterian
    • Scottish Presbyterians will be key allies of English Puritans
    • independent Church of Scotland
  2. The Radical Reformation (theology, figures, impact)
    • No coherent leader or movement
    • Radicals believe that they are the only pure ones
    • Rejects all ideas of sacraments (Spirit works directly-voices, feelings, etc)
    • Radicals hated and brutally persecuted by Ctholics, Lutherans, Reformed
    • Anabaptist used to lump all groups together
    • Conrad Grebel Swiss Brethren-inspired by Zwingli
    • Thomas Muntzer- Peasant Revolt in Luther's Realm
    • Menno Simons etc
  3. The Roman Catholic Reformation (Council of Trent, I. Loyola, etc)
    • Ignatius Loyola: Spainard
    • Forms new order: Society of Jesus: "Jesuits"-Catholic "Marines"
    • Spiritual Exercises
    • Promotes "absolute obedience" to pope
    • Council of Trent: meeting of 250+ clerics
    • Few Protestant observers allowed to attend
    • cleans up abuses, corruption
    • Index of Forbidden Books Established
    • Damnable Heresy
    • Protestants declared "false churches" and hell-boun
  4. General Western European Motives for Exploration
    • Columbus mistakenly believed he had sailed to outer India
    • Colmbus/Spanish viewed the SanSalvadorian tribes as "inferior"
  5. Portuguese and Spanish Exploration (important people, geography, settlement)
    • Spain - Reconquista ended
    • Developing Concept of "nationhood"
    • Desire for trade with "the Orient" (China, India)
    • Marco Polo in China
    • Devout Roman Catholic Monarchs ing Ferdinand and Isabella
    • Columbus:
  6. Treaty of Tordesillas
    • 1494
    • Divided the New World between the 2 countries (Spanish...Portuguese)
    • Future "Latin America" mostly Spanish
  7. French Exploration:
    Important People
    • Roman Catholic Monarch King Francis I worries about Spanish Dominance
    • Jacques Cartier to find a NW passage to China; instead he finds Labrador, St Lawrence River
    • Qubec Area founded by Samuel de Champlain
    • Jacques Marquette explores the Great Lakes Region/future upper Midwest
    • Rene de LaSalle with the French establish outposts in the Mississippi River as far south as modern New Orleans
  8. English Exploration:
    Important People
    • John Cabot sailing near NE Canada
    • England forcibly begins colonization of Ireland
    • Sir Walter Raleigh explores Eastern US seaboard
    • First and second attempt of settlement in North Carolina didn't end well
    • James I (new monarch) issues charter and focus on settling further north
    • led by Captain John Smith
    • Area namd Jamestown
    • Pre-dates Pilgrims by 10 years (1st Thanksgiving)
    • Oldest continuously settled city in America: St. Augustine, FL
  9. English Puritanism: Theology
    • Purify the Church of England
    • Desire for a strict, "godly English society"
    • Different Standards of "sola Scriptura"
  10. English Puritanism: Goals
    • "No bishops/no king"
    • Legally enforce a "godly society"
    • Sabbath Observance, anti-theater, taverns
  11. English Puritanism: Political Issues
    • Puritans become a political/revolutionary force (more democratic and anti-monarch)
    • Elected into English Parliament (majority)
  12. English Civil War: Charles I
    • Anti-Puritan and Anti-Protestant Monarch
    • Attracted to Roman Catholicism
    • Grants land just north of Jamestown to Calvert
    • Overthrown/Beheaded
  13. English Civil War: Archbishop Laud
    Overthrown and beheaded
  14. English Civil War: Oliver Cromwell
    Congregationalist who forms dictatorship for 10 years
  15. Reason for Puritan failure in England/Resoration of Monarchy
    • England grew tired of Puritans
    • So they all became divisive
    • especially when the monarchy/Anglicanism was restored with Charles II
  16. Medieval Understanding of "Science"
    Philosophy: math, astronomy, and physics
  17. Ptolemy
    • Greek Scientist in Egypt who said that the earth is fixe at the center of the universe
    • Binding intrprtations of ible imposed by medieval Roman Catholicism
  18. Francis Bacon and the Scientific Method
    • Father of the Scientific Method (used inductive reasoning, experiments to test hypothesis, and research with objectiveness and open mind)
    • English
    • Believed that Science must subdivide into specialties
    • Beleved that Science and technology must be unified together
    • Christian: quoted scripture, studied theology
  19. Rene Descartes
    • French Roman Catholic
    • mathematician/Philosopher
    • empirical world a mathematical system
    • tried to prove the existence of God via system of "doubt"
    • "I think therefore I am"
  20. Nicolaus Copernicus
    • Polish
    • challenged long-held view of Ptolemy
    • sun is the center of the Universe
  21. Johannes Kepler
    • German
    • Endorsed copernicus
    • Showed that orbits of planets are elliptical and purely circular
  22. Galileo
    • Italian
    • improved telescope inventor
    • confirms copernicus' ideas
    • motions studies and the idea of enertia
  23. 17th Century Roman Catholic Reaction to the Scientific Revolution
    Condemned several of these Scientific Revolutionists because they believed mainly for one that Copernicus was against the bible and many of them adapted to the ideas of Copernicus
  24. Isaac Newton
    • English
    • Astronomy, Physics, Gravity
    • Theories of Calculus
    • Famous apple falling from tree
  25. Blaise Pascal
    • French
    • Deeply Religious (Roman Catholic)
    • Mathematician & Philosopher
    • Inventor of first wristwatch and mechanical adding machine
    • Probability Theory
  26. Andreas Vesalius
    • Belgian (flemish/dutch)
    • Studied Human Anatomy
  27. William Harvey
    • English
    • Studied Human anatomy via dissections
    • circulation of the blood throughout human body
  28. Thomas Newcomen
    • English
    • Practical "inventor" type
    • Develops the first Steam engine
  29. Early Dutch New Amsterdam (New York)
    • New York was originally New Netherlands as a result of Dutch/English Conflict
    • Dutch settled in New Amsterdam with the main ambition to make money
    • Diverse trading posts and Dutch Reformed (Calvinist) was the official religion
  30. Early Maryland Settlement (figures, conditons, religion)
    • named for Maria, wife of English King Charles I
    • Granted land to Calvert
    • Maryland would be a re-creation of Medieval European feudal estates
    • However, tobacco was the only feasible cash crop and they needed workers(slaves and servants)
    • first colony to have a relgious toleration policy
    • Only those denyng the Trinity will be put to death
    • English roman Catholics
  31. Early Virginia Settlemens (figures, conditions, religion)
    • Focus on settling further North by Chesapeake Bay Region or coasta Virginia
    • Captain John Smith led settlers near an area named Jamestown near Williamsburg, VA
    • First year: starvation, disease, water poisoning, Indian conflict, cannibalism
  32. Early English Motivations/Attempts at Exploration and Settlement of New World
    They tried to settle in certain places mainly along the Eastern US seaboard but came across some indians and this created much conflict
  33. Early French Settlement in Future Canada, America
    • French failed to find much gold in the area of modern canada
    • focus attention on fur-trapping/pelts for export
    • Fairly effective at achieving some level of cultural understanding with the Natives
Card Set
World Civilizations Final Test
final test