What is Science?
a way of understanding the natural world
What 3 basic questions does Science attemp to answer?
- -what is there?
- -how does it work?
- -how did it come to be this way?
What is Science in philosophy?
What is Science a requirement of?
requirement of the Western Legal System
Describe Science as a process
ideas developed by inference, testing hypotheses with observations, peer review and replication
What kind of explanation is considered the most likely in Science?
the simplest explanation (Parsimony?)
What are Theories?
They allow scientists to make predictions. They are based on evidence that tries to make sense of some aspect of nature that is tested in many ways
What are scientific theories subject to?
review and modication
What can science answer questions about?
What can science NOT answer questions about?
morality, beauty, etc.
states that our reality is only a refelection of a higher truth or ideal -variation in the natural world is a sign of imperfection relative to this ideal
Great Chain of Being
What is the Great Chain of Being?
states that all species arrayed along a single axis and they are unchanging, and increase in order,complexity,perfection. Each species was created independently as a part of God's perfect, ordered creation.
father of modern taxonomy
- Species epithet
What is the species name composed of?
Genus+epithet = binomial nomenclature
Why is it wrong to call the species epithet the "species name"?
b/c species name is made up of Genus + Species epithet (ie. Homo(Genus) + sapiens(Species epithet))
idea originally by Ibn Sina (persian doctor/philosopher) - states that the present is the key to the past and suggests that Earth is older than 6000 years
using his knowledge of the Bible, calculated the origin of the universe (Creation) to have occurred at the nightfull preceding 10/23 4004BC (Ussher Chronology)
wrote Essay on the Principle of Population (states that population usually don't grow at an exponential rate and that all species produce more offspring than can survive on given resources)
proposed "inheritance of acquired characters" using giraffes' necks as example - aka that species evolved, before Darwin
Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace
Theory of Natural Selection
The Origin of Species
written by Darwin and includes 5 theories on evolution
5 theories in The Orign of Species
- 1. Evolution
- 2. Common Descent
- 3. Gradualism
- 4. Species Diversification
- 5. Natural Selection
(The Origin of Species) species evolve (not a unique idea to Darwin)
(The Origin of Species) shared common ancestors and that greater similarity reflects more recent ancestry
(The Origin of Species) evolutionary change occurs through small incremental steps
(The Origin of Species) number of species multiplies as they diverge from common ancestors
(The Origin of Species) differential survival and reproduction of some individuals have over others in a population due to phenotypic differences and if the differences are heritable, they'll show up in the next generation
HIV Case Study
showed that Genetic Variation in the HIV population results from Mutation and that Evolution can occur in any population where there is heritable variation in reproductive success (**study the questions and figures about the HIV case study!!**)