Cardiovasclular Pathology

  1. The vagus nerve slows heart action by transmitting the chemical ____, whereas the sympathetic nervous system stimulates the release of ___ that accelerates the heart rate.
  2. Between each atrium and it's associated valve are the ____.
    Atrioventricular valves
  3. The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle:
    Mitral (bicuspid) valve
  4. The valve between the right atrium and right ventricle:
    Tricuspid Valve
  5. The valve between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery:
    Pulmonary Valve
  6. The valve that separates the aorta and left ventricle:
    Aortic Valve
  7. Which needs greater pressure, the systemic or pulmonary circulation?
  8. Which wall is thicker, that of the left or right ventricle?
  9. Most common congenital cardiac lesions:
    left-to-right shunts
  10. Most common left-to-right shunt:
    atrial septal defect
  11. Second major type of left-to-right shunt:
    ventricular septal defect
  12. Third major type of left-to-right shunt:
    patent ductus arteriosus
  13. The ductus arteriosus serves to shunt blood from the ___ artery into the ___ during intrauterine life.
    pulmonary; systemic circulation
  14. In left-to-right shunts, the flow of blood from the higher pressure aorta to the lower pressure pulmonary artery causes:
    increased pulmonary flow, and excess volume of blood returned to elft atrium and ventricle
  15. All left-to-right shunts can be complicated by the development of pulmonary hypertension, or ___.
    Eisenmenger's syndrome
  16. Most common cause of cyanotic congenital heart disease:
    Tatralogy of Fallot
  17. Four abnormalities of Tetralogy of Fallot:
    high ventricular septal defect, pulmonary stenosis, overriding of aortic orifice, right ventricular hypertrophy
  18. What causes the right ventricular hypertrophy in Tetralogy of Fallot?
    Pulmonary stenosis causes elevation of pressure
  19. Narrowing of the aorta that most commonly occurs just beyond the branching of the blood vessels to the head and arms:
    Coarctation of the Aorta
  20. Coarctation causes what type of blood pressure?
    Normal in arms, low in legs
  21. Factors predisposing to the development of coronary artery disease include:
    hypertension, obesity, smoking, high-colesterol diet, and lack of exercise
  22. Inability of the heart to propel blood at a rate and volume sufficient to provide an adequate supply to tissues:
    Congestive Heart Failure
  23. Causes of CHF include:
    intrinsic cardiac abnormality, hypertension, or any obstruction to normal blood flow
  24. Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the extravascular pulmonary tissues:
    Pulmonary Edema
  25. Most common cause of pulmonary edema:
    elevation of pulmonary venous pressure
  26. Most common cuase of elevation of pulmonary venous pressure:
    left sided heart failure
  27. Leading cause of strokes and CHF:
  28. High blood pressure is that above:
  29. What causes narrowing of systemic blood vessels and an increased resistance to blood flow?
    Long-standing high blood pressure (hypertensive heart disease)
  30. Localized dilation of an artery that most commonly involves the aorta, especially it's abdominal portion:
  31. A ___ aneurysm involves only one side of the arterial wall while a ____ aneurysm involves th bluging of the entire circumference of the vessel wall:
    saccular; fusiform
  32. An aneurysm represents a:
    weakness in the wall of a blood vessel
  33. Presence of multiple small aneurysms is suggestive of generalized:
    arterial inflammation (arteritis)
  34. Most aortic dissections occur in patients with:
    arterial hypertension
  35. Arteries marked by thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity in the arterial wall:
  36. Major cause of vascular disease of the extremities:
  37. Autoimmune disease that results from a reaction of the patient's antibodies against antigens from a previous strep infection:
    Rheumatic fever
  38. The major damage of rheumatic fever is to the:
    valves of the heart; most frequently mitral and aortic
  39. Development of nodules or vegetations forming on heart valves caused by deposists of bacteria or fungi:
    Infective Endocarditis
  40. Accumulation of fluid within the pericardial space surrounding the heart:
    pericardial effusion
  41. Pericardial effusion may result from:
    bacteria, viruses, or neoplastic involvement
  42. Major source of potentially fatal pulmonary embolism; primarily involves the lower extremeties:
    Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT)
  43. Precipitating factors of DVT:
    trauma, bacterial infection, prolonged bed rest, and oral contraceptives
  44. DVT may be the earliest symptom of an unsuspected malignancy of the:
    pancreas, lung, or GI system
  45. Heart rate is controlled by the ____ nervous system:
  46. Oxygenated blood reaches the heart muscle by way of the:
    right and left coronary artery
  47. Arterial disease caused by fatty deposits on the inner arterial wall is termed:
  48. What radiographic procedure is used to determine the presence of coronary artery disease?
    Coronary arteriogram
  49. The procedure in which a balloon is used to dilate narrowed coronary arteries is named:
    percutaneous transluminal angioplasty
  50. What is the modality of choice for demonstration of and abdominal aortic aneurysm?
  51. The ___ of the heart are the major site of damage from rheumatic fever.
  52. Most sensitive and specific noninvasive method of diagnosing mitral stenosis:
  53. Invasive procedure for determining deep vein thrombosis:
  54. Most acurate screening procedure for assessing renovascular lesions:
Card Set
Cardiovasclular Pathology
Cardiovascular Pathology