1. Preservation Techniques
    • Fermentation- cheese beer wine
    • Vinegar
    • Honey
    • Dehydration- sun or fire
  2. Food industry is the largest industry
    About 1/5 of all U.S sales are food related
  3. Organic Molecules
    • The bulk of food components are complex organic compounds built from a few principle elements bound in an infinite number of combinations.
    • Made mainly from organic molecules:
    • Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen
  4. Inorganic Molecules
    • What most food is secondarily made up of.
    • Calcium, Iron, Phosphorus, Sulfur
    • Inorganic molecules may be present as free ions, as salts, or dissolved in solution in the main food component, water.
  5. Inorganic molecules may be present in
    • Complex organic molecules. Which drives metabolism
    • Iron in hemoglobin- transportation of oxygen
    • Magnesium in chlorophyll-light and electron transport
  6. Major Categories of Distinctly Different Food Components, Proximate Analysis:
    • Proteins (amino acids)
    • Lipids (fats)
    • Carbohydrates (CHO)
    • Mineral (ash)
    • Water (h2O)
  7. Wet Analysis
    • Includes water
    • 'wet basis'
    • 'as is basis'
  8. Dry Analysis
    • Food minus water
    • 'dry basis' (d.b)
    • 'total solids' (T.S)
    • 'non-fat solids' (N.F.S)
  9. AOAC, int
    • Analysis of Official Analytical Chemists, International.
    • use proximate analysis
  10. How is proximate analysis used?
    • -Dairy manufacturers use lipid content in the manufacture of butter. Must be > 85% butterfat
    • -Food processors use moisture content to determine the kind and amount of bacterial growth. Aw of < .65 to inhibit growth
    • -The total solids (mainly as CHO) is an important part of jam manufacture. Standard of ID > 65% total solids
  11. Micronutrients
    • -Vitamins
    • -Minerals
    • Both found in minute quantities. We don't need a lot. They are very susceptible to degradation. So great care is taken to retain or fortify foods with both.
  12. Macro-nutrients
    • Proteins
    • CHO
    • Lipids
    • Water
    • Constitute 90-99% of food.
  13. Vitamin C is lost by...
    Thiamin is lost by...
    Riboflavin is lost by...
    Vitamin E is lost by...
    • O2, heat
    • heat
    • light
    • O2, UV light
  14. Essential Nutrients
    • Nutrients which cannot be synthesized by the body in sufficient amounts and thus need to be ingested.
    • 50 such nutrients- amino acids, water soluble vitamins, linoleic acid ect.
  15. Protein
    • Protein includes 9 essential amino acids
    • Not consumed as a source of energy but for growth maintenance, and repair of tissue.
    • Requirements decrease with age.
    • All proteins contain Nitrogen at a level of about 16%
Card Set